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Study and description of three locally available flowering plants families Solanaceae Fabaceae and Liliaceae
Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae are the three types of families of plants which are locally available. They contain different characteristics and they also have medicinal qualities which have various usesEach of the families have its vegetative, flowering as well as medicinal qualities. In this part, Solanaceae have a taproot system. The family of Fabaceae contain bacteria on their roots which are very useful. On the other hand, the Liliaceae family is described as having a fibrous root system.
Aim of the Experiment
In this tutorial, mainly three common flowering plants which are available locally are taken. The plants belong to the families of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae. It shows the exhibition of floral whorls, types of roots, stem, and leaf in this experiment.
Solanaceae is considered to be the flower-bearing plants and they are also called the nightshades. The type of plants such as vines, lianas, epiphytes, as well as shrubs falls under the category of these plants. They play important roles as medicinal herbs and crops and they are also used as spices and condiments.
It is seen that some of the plants are also useful as they have ornamental value and this type is mainly found in the South and Central Americas. They contain some vegetative as well as floral characteristics as mentioned −
This family contain a system of roots and they are called the taproot system. This family contain the stems of climber and erect and the family includes herbs, small trees, climbers, shrubs. The characteristics of the leaves include alternate, pinnately compound or simple, exstipulate, venation, and reticulate.
Figure 1: American black nightshade, belonging to Solanaceae family
The family of Solanaceae contain the inflorescence of cymose type. The flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous, and complete in nature. In this family, the fruits are like berry or capsule and the seeds are endosperms and numerous.
This type of plant also has a medicinal quality and this type of plant is used for reducing hypertension. It is helpful in the examination of the interior of the eye.
This family bears the characteristics of the beans family and they are the flowering plants. They can be either perennial or annual and they are able in taking the form of shrubs and trees. The plants of this family bear the significance of agriculture and they also serve the purpose of ornamental plants.
The majority of these plants are found in the diversity of the tropical regions. They are important plants in the world as they increase the fertility of the soil. They are mainly cultivated for fixing the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil with the use of leghemoglobin and it is present in the roots.
This family can be of the vines, epiphytes, or erect and the leaves of these plants are arranged alternately. They are capable of possessing stipules and they can be a thorn as well as a leaf. Inside the roots of those plants bacteria reside and they are very helpful in increasing the nitrogen in soil.
Figure 2: Butterfly pea, belonging to Fabaceae family
It also has medicinal qualities and they are considered to be great food items. Their quality of medicine lies in the fact that they are rich in vitamins, fibres and minerals like iron, potassium, and calcium. It is also proved recently that they also consist lots of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, flavonols, trypsin, and rotenoids.
These all are considered to be antifungal, antibacterial as well as antioxidant properties and they are used in traditional medicines. They are used in treating anaemia, ulcers and complications in pregnancy.
In this family, there are 250 different genera and 4075 species of the plants which can bear a flower. They fall under the category of Liliales and every plant in this category bears its specific characteristics. They are found in all parts of the world and they are especially found in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Figure 3: Oriental Lily, belonging to Liliaceae family
They have value as ornaments and they also have medicinal qualities. They are herbaceous, perennial and are monocotyledonous. The flowers are mainly called hermaphrodite, and are either radially or bilaterally symmetrical. Some of the plants are known for having a poisonous effect but the leaves are simple.
These kinds of plants are used in different traditional therapeutics and they consist of white flowers. It helps to stop bleeding from wounds and reduce pigmentation of the skin. They reduce hypertension and hyperglycemia and also is used in the production of many steroids. This family bears popular plants like aloe vera which have different medical benefits.
The three local flower-bearing families of plants taken here are Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae. All the plants have their different characteristics and the Liliaceae family includes perennial herbs. This family bears the leaves of simple and is set in a parallel way. The floral characteristics of the family of Fabaceae include having seeds that are non-endospermic. The flowers are mainly complete and bisexual and five petals are found on them. The seeds of the Solanaceae family are mainly endosperms and are numerous.
Q1. What is the leaf of the Solanaceae family?
Ans. This family has consecutive leaves in basal part and opposing decussate in the upper part. The leaves are mainly simple, acute, sessile, hairy as well as reticulate in nature.
Q2. What is the structure of stems of the Fabaceae family?
Ans. The stem is mainly weak, glaucous, smooth as well as cylindrical. They are herbaceous, branched, and climb with the help of leaf tendrils. This is the structure of the stem in this type of plant.
Q3. What kind of flowers are found in the Liliaceae family?
Ans. This is an important family of plants and they bear the flower that are white in colour. They are complete in nature and pedicellate, actinomorphic, bracteate, hermaphrodite, and hypogynous.
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