Preparation and Study of Transverse Section of Dicot and Monocot Roots and Stems


Mostly two different types of plants are generally seen such as flowering as well as nonflowering. Angiosperms refer to flowering plants and the non-flowering plants are called gymnosperms. Angiosperms can be divided into two different groups in terms of their cotyledons number such as monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous.

What are Dicot and Monocot Roots and Stems?

Monocot Root and Stems Dicot Root and Stems
The vascular bundle of the monocot stems are mostly scattered. In dicot stems vascular bundle is mostly seen in the circular arrangement.
In terms of monocot, the bundles are generally seen at the outer edge of a stem and they are circled by the large type of parenchyma in the region of the cortex. A taproot shape of root is generally seen in dicot which means they mostly form a thick kind of root which is single in form along with lateral branches. This type of root goes deep under the soil.
A complete network in terms of the fibrous root is mostly seen in monocots and most woody plants have that type of roots. In dicot roots, the vascular structures are located in the middle of the root.

Table 1: Difference between Monocot Stem/Roots and Dicot Stem/Roots

Preparation and Study of the Transverse Section of Dicot and Monocot Roots and Stems

Dicot stem


The aim of this study is to closely observe the sentient transverse dicot stem.


Some essential materials are required like root as well as stem of a sunflower, fresh root as well as stem of maize, a microscope as well as the blade. Besides this, several slides, observing glass, cover ships, safranin, brush, brush blotting paper and glycerine.


This particular type of stem is divided into two separate parts the epidermis and cortex. The hypodermis is another part of the stem and it is located under the epidermis section. It mainly comprises collenchymatous cells and the most important function of this layer of stem is to provide mechanical support. The endodermis is another important layer of this type of stem which is arranged densely and the shape of this type of layer is barrel. Parenchyma refers to the common cortex and it is located just under the hypodermis and includes multiple layers of the cell. The principal function of these layers is to store food for future use.


It is seen that multicellular hairs are seen in the epidermis layer and the hypodermis layer of the stem is called collenchymatous. The xylem is generally attached to the protoxylem from the centre, in this type of layer; the vascular bundles are generally open, conjoint as well as collateral.

Figure 1: Cross section of monocot and dicot root

Dicot root


The principal aim of this study is to observe minutely the sentient transverse dicot root.


The first layer of this type of root is the epidermis and then the cortex is located. After these two layers, endodermises, as well as pericycle, are also seen. The shape of the endodermis is like a barrel and it is arranged densely within a single layer of the cell.


Unicellular types of hair are mostly seen in these layers and hypodermis is not present. The bundles of vascular tissue are arranged radically and the phloem numbers are within 6.

Monocot stem


The aim of this study is to closely observe the sentient transverse monocot stem.


The structure of monocot is commonly seen in the maize plant the section transverse is ring-shaped and the surface of this layer is smooth. The epidermis is the outermost layer which has a thin cell wall and any kind of epidermal hair is not seen in this layer. The principal function of this layer is to provide complete protection to the internal tissue.

Figure 2: Cross section of Monocot stem (left) and dicot stem (right)


It is arranged like a circular design and the pith is seen in the middle of the layer. A pith is seen in this layer which is developed well.

Monocot Root


The principal aim of this study is to observe minutely the sentient transverse monocot root.

Figure 3: Structure of dicot and monocot stem


The hypodermis layer is seen which is located above the base tissue. A Y-shaped bundle of vascular is commonly seen in this type of stem. It commonly comprises the xylem as well as the phloem. The xylem is mainly involved in conducting water to the other part of the plant and the phloem mainly conducts different types of food materials.


This layer has some hair which is unicellular and hypodermis is not present in this type of root. The bundles of vascular tissue are arranged radically. The bundles of xylem, as well as phloem, are 8 and more than it.


Mainly 2 to 6 types of bundle arrangement are seen in terms of phloem as well as xylem. Then the bundle of phloem is seen which includes comparison cell along with parenchyma as well as a sieve tube. A set of conjunctive tissue is located under these layers which mainly differentiate the bundles of phloem along with xylem. Pith is another important layer of this structure.


Q1. What is pericycle?

Ans. It is located under the bundles of vascular tissue and above the endodermis. It has patches of sclerenchyma as well as parenchyma that are recurrent. Every patch sclerenchyma is connected with the fibres of hard-bast.

Q2. What is called medullary rays?

Ans. It is mainly located between the bundles of vascular tissue and it is arranged in 4 to 5 rows radially. It is helpful in storing the different materials of food and conducting water as well as food.

Q3. What is pith?

Ans. It is located in the middle of the stem and arises below the bundles of vascular tissue. It consists of large parenchymatous cells.