Salient Features of The Kingdom Monera


The realization that microorganisms alone control a vast portion of the evolving community of living things is incredibly astounding. They are the most common life forms in the living environment. Microscopic creatures are present everywhere. This characteristic can be attributed to the great variety of microorganisms and the fact that many of them have evolved to survive in harsh environmental circumstances.

Characteristics of Monera

  • The members of the kingdom Monera are single-celled creatures.

  • The rigid cell wall's main component is peptidoglycan.

  • Binary fission is the mode of reproduction.

  • They have 70S ribosomes in them.

  • The organ used for locomotion is the flagellum.

  • The centrosome, lysosomes, plastids, Golgi bodies, mitochondria, and other organelles are absent.

  • They typically exist in humid conditions.

  • The nuclear envelope is absent from them. They just have naked circular DNA as their genetic material.


  • Bacteria are tiny creatures that can endure a variety of conditions. They may be dangerous as well as advantageous. They have a few cell organelles and a basic structure without a nucleus.

  • The outer cell wall and the inner cell membrane serve as the bacteria's two barriers of defense. A capsule also protects against some germs. Like Mycoplasma, very few bacteria do not have a cell wall.

  • They can be found in various settings., including soil, water, acidic hot springs, trash, and the earth's crust. They coexist with plants in parasitic and symbiotic ways as well. They affect the environment both negatively and favorably.

  • Fission is mostly how bacteria multiply. However, due to some unfavorable circumstances, the bacterium may multiply through spores.

  • In their guts and even on their skin, animals, and humans carry tens of thousands to millions of bacteria. As a result, bacteria are everywhere.

Structure of Bacteria

The following list includes the salient characteristics of a bacterial structure:

  • The Capsule: Many bacteria have a slimy capsule that is typically found outside of the cell wall. Polysaccharides and nitrogenous elements like amino acids make up this capsule. This slime layer thickens and assumes the appearance of a capsule.

  • Cellular Wall: All bacterial cells are frequently shielded by a thick, stiff cell wall. Inside the capsule is the cell wall.

  • Plasma Membrane (plasmic cilium): A plasma membrane can be found inside each bacterial cell. It is a thin, elastic membrane that is differently or selectively permeable that is located just inside the cell wall.

  • Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm, or protoplasm, of bacterial cells is where cell replication, maintenance, and growth take place. Its jelly matrix, which also contains other cell components like ribosomes, chromosomes, and plasmids, is composed of water, proteins, nutrition, solid wastes, and gases. The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm and all of its constituent parts. Like eukaryotic cells, bacteria don't have nuclei that are enclosed in a wall.

  • Flagella: These tiny, protoplasmic attachments resemble threads. They penetrate both the bacterial cells' cell walls and their slime layer. They aid germs in swimming across a liquid media.

Shape of Bacteria

The three primary bacterial morphologies are cocci (round), bacillus (filament), helical (distorted), and vibrios (comma-shaped), however, bacteria can take on a variety of shapes.

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  • Round cells called cocci can become slightly flattened when placed next to each other.

  • Bacilli are bacteria with a rod form.

  • Spirilla are curved bacteria that can take on several forms, ranging from a little curve to a spiral resembling a corkscrew. Numerous spirilla are mobile yet stiff. Spirochetes are a unique species of spirilla that are elastic, tall, and thin.

  • Vibrios are sometimes referred to as commas; they are tiny, testicle bacteria with flagella on one end.

Classification of Monera

Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Cyanobacteria are the three sub-kingdoms that make up the Kingdom Monera.

  • Archaebacteria: Archaebacteria are ancient, primitive diverse groups of prokaryotes that can survive in harsh environments like those found in thermal springs, oceans, coastal wetlands, and places where there is no oxygen. As a result, they are known as Endophytes.

  • A combination of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and proteins make up the cell wall. They are distinctive and are classified in a particular level called Prokaryotic cells, which are situated between eukaryotes and bacteria.

  • Eubacteria: Eubacteria, also known as "real bacteria" or just "bacteria," is the more complex division of the Monera kingdom.

  • Members of the Eubacteria are more prevalent and extensively dispersed than those of the Archaebacteria in the majority of ecosystems (water, soil, within and on external creatures, etc.) around the world.

  • Eubacteria are prokaryotes that belong to the Monera kingdom, which means they lack membrane-bound organelles.

  • Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae, have chlorophyll in their bodies, which enables them to produce their sustenance. They are therefore photosynthesis autotrophs, just like plants.

  • In fresh or salt water, they might be a filament, cosmopolitan, or single cell in nature. They can also be found in terrestrial habitats, where they produce their food using water, carbon dioxide, and solar energy.

  • Some species in this category can produce food on their own, but they can also build a mutualistic relationship with fungi to create lichens.


They are beneficial creatures, Monera, enhancing soil quality and aid in the cycling of nutrients. They are also helpful in the creation of different foods and medicines. The sewage treatment process depends heavily on anaerobic microorganisms. For many creatures, Archaebacteria are a significant source of food.


Q1. What is required for bacterial growth?

Ans: Although bacteria can withstand a wider range of temperatures than humans, they prefer a warm, humid, protein environment that is neutral or low in pH. There are, however, several anomalies. While some bacteria can sustain conditions that are exceedingly hot or cold, others can withstand overly acidic conditions or saline.

Q2. Does bacterial growth require light?

Ans: Scientists found that water bacteria expand more quickly during the day and offer a biological reason. Even though they don't use the sun as an energy source, some water bacteria exhibit daytime growth enhancement, which raises the possibility that they have unique genomes that absorb radiation.

Q3. What living thing lack cells?

Ans: The only other known living things without cells are viruses. The complete genome (DNA and RNA) that makes up viruses is encased in a peptide shell. They lack cellular organelles, walls, and a functioning enzyme.

Q4. Life without cells is possible?

Ans: No. One of the traits we use to determine whether something is living or not is the presence of cells. Therefore, from the smallest bacteria to the greatest animals and plants, all the things we refer to as "living things" and are formed of cells.

Q5. On surfaces, how far can germs move?

Ans: When someone sneezes or cough tiny droplets of infectious material are released into the atmosphere. These minute droplets can fly as far as 7 feet and cause infections when they touch objects or enter someone else's eyes, nostrils, or throat.