Plant Kingdom Plantae


This living organism is commonly made of multiple numbers of cells that is eukaryotic. This type of cell has a prominent wall and the main component of this wall is cellulose. The differentiation process of this kingdom was done according to the model of R.H Whittaker and this classification process was mainly done due to the structure of the cellular body, the process of nutrition, organisation of body structure as well as the reproduction process. Another important basis of the classification is the phylogenetic combination with others

What is the kingdom of plants?

Plantae refers to ‘the kingdom of plants’ that mainly contains all types of plants on this planet. Different types of eukaryotes that are multicellular are included in this kingdom and the principal characteristics of all the members of this kingdom are a rigid structure that is generally surrounded by the cell membrane, generally called a wall of the cell.

Plants generally have a pigment which is green in colour namely chlorophyll. It is the most important component of the process of photosynthesis that is also called food making procedure.

Different types of plants

According to the nutrition and reproduction process, as well as the structure of the cellular body plants can be classified into five different groups namely Thallophyta, Bryophyta, as well as Pteridophyta. Besides this, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms are some significant types of plants seen.


All types of plants that contain a short as well as well-differentiated body structure generally belong to this category. The plants of this category are generally called algae. They are mainly water-based plants and for example, Chara or Ulothrix. This category is classified into two different groups’ algae and fungi.


This type of plant generally does not have any kinds of vascular tissues and the plant body is separated into three main parts root, stem as well as the leaf. It is called amphibians in this kingdom, as it needs water for completing its reproduction process. In moist or dark places, these types of plants are generally seen. Liverworts, hornworts as well as different types of mosses are examples of this type of plant.


The whole plant can be separated into three main parts root, stem as well as leaf. A vascular system is commonly seen in this type of plant. Ferns and horsetails are some examples of this type of plant.


A well-differentiated plant includes a vascular system. The seeds of this type of plant are naked which means the seed are not covered with fruit. Cycas, as well as Pinus, are some common examples of this type of plant.


These plants are bearing seeds and have a well-differentiated structure in terms of body. The seeds are fully covered within the fruit and this type of plant is generally big in size. Monocotyledons, as well as dicotyledons, are the two different types of Angiosperms that are categorized by the number of seeds present within the fruit.

Features of the types of plants

All the categories of the plant have some distinct features

  • Thallophyta is generally autotrophic in nature. Most of the plants in this group can make their own food. Vascular tissue does not see in this type of plant. A single-celled sex organ is commonly seen in this type of plants

  • Bryophytes generally do not have a proper root but they have a stem and leave which is crude. Rhizoids are included, which work as the replace roots.

  • Pteridophyta is generally a terrestrial type of plant. These are seedless plants having vascular cryptogams and multiple cells are included in the reproduction process.

  • Gymnosperms are flowering plants that have a proper vascular system.

  • Angiosperms are the types of plant that bears seed, enclosed by fruits. They can produce flowers and it is classified into two different groups’ monocots as well as dicots.

Characteristics of the kingdom of plants

There are several specific characteristics of each plant of this kingdom, which is totally different from other types of kingdoms.

  • Most of the plants of this kingdom are non-motile.

  • Plants generally make their food within their own body so plants are called autotrophs.

  • The reproduction process of plants is asexual with the help of vegetative propagation.

  • They are mainly made of multiple numbers of cells that are eukaryotes. The specific characteristic of the cell of a plant body is having a prominent wall throughout the outer parts. The large type of central vacuole is also seen in the plant cell.

  • The cell of a plant includes pigments, which are photosynthetic, called chlorophyll. It generally exists in the plastids of cells.

  • Plants generally have multiple numbers of organelles for the purpose of anchorage, the process of reproduction, support as well as photosynthesis procedure.


The kingdom is also classified into two different groups’ cryptogams as well as phanerogams. Cryptogam is such trees that cannot produce flowers. Examples of this type of plant are Thallophyta, Bryophyta as well as Pteridophyta. Phanerogams are flower-producing flowers and Gymnosperms along with Angiosperms are examples of this type of plant.


Q1. What are the criteria for the classification of plants?

Ans: The classification of plants is mainly based on the structure of the body and the vascular system. The process of formation of the seed is also another criterion.

Q2. What are Monocotyledons?

Ans: It is a significant type of plant under the category of Angiosperms. The features of this type of plant are adventitious roots and flowers that are trimerous.

Q3. What are the two different types of Pteridophyta?

Ans: This type of plant is classified into two different groups Lycopodiopsida as well as Polypodiopsida. Both plants are seedless and have vascular cryptogams.

Updated on: 20-Feb-2023


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