(a) What is ovulation? How often does it happen in human females?
(b) Where does fertilization take place in human females?
(c) Explain why fertilization is possible if mating takes place during the middle of the menstrual cycle.
(d) What is meant by implantation?
(e) What is the placenta? What is its function?
(f) What joins the embryo to the placenta in the mother's body?

(a) Ovulation is the process where an ovum is released from an ovary. In human females, the ovaries release an ovum (an egg cell) every 28 days after attaining the age of puberty.

(b) In human females, fertilization takes place in oviducts.

(c) Fertilization is possible if mating takes place in between menstrual cycles because, during the middle of the menstrual cycle, ovulation takes place. Thus, the ovum has been released from the ovary and remains in living condition for about 2 days. Thus, if mating takes place during this time, the sperm penetrate inside the female body and fuse with the released ovum so that fertilization can take place.

(d) Implantation, or attachment of an embryo in the thick lining of the uterus (endometrium), is known as implantation.

(e) Placenta is a complex, circular tissue organ that forms the connection between the uterus wall and an embryo after the implantation.

The placenta's main function is to exchange nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between an embryo and the mother.

(f) In a mother's body, the umbilical cord joins the embryo to the placenta.

[Extra information:

Fertilization of the male gametes and female gametes results in the formation of a zygote. Fertilization is the process in which the nuclei of the egg and sperm unite together in the fallopian tube to form a single-celled zygote.]


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 21-Mar-2023


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