How to Deploy WordPress Instance on Kubernetes?


Kubernetes is a powerful, open-source container orchestration system that makes it easy to deploy, scale, and manage containerized applications. It automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications across multiple hosts.

On the other hand, WordPress is the most popular content management system for building websites and blogs. It's free open-source software that allows users to create a website or blog without knowing how to code.

Setting up a Kubernetes Cluster

An Overview of Setting up a Kubernetes Cluster using Tools like Minikube or Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

Deploying WordPress on Kubernetes requires setting up a cluster first. A cluster is a collection of one or more physical or virtual machines that run containerized applications.

A Kubernetes cluster consists of a master node and worker nodes. The master node manages the entire cluster, while the worker nodes execute and manage the application workloads.

Step-by-Step Instructions for Setting up a Cluster

Here are step-by-step instructions for setting up a Kubernetes cluster using Minikube −

  • Install VirtualBox − VirtualBox is required to run Minikube on your local machine.

  • Install kubectl − Kubectl is the command-line tool used to communicate with the API server in the Kubernetes master node.

  • Install Minikube − Download and install the latest version of Minikube from their official website.

  • Start Minikube − Open your terminal window and type "minikube start" to start the local single-node Kubernetes cluster.

  • Verify Installation − Type "kubectl get nodes" in your terminal window to verify that the installation was successful. Alternatively, here are step-by-step instructions for setting up a cluster using GKE−

    • Create Project − Sign in to your Google Cloud Console account and create a new project.

    • Enable Billing − Enable billing for your project if it's not already enabled.

    • Create Cluster − Navigate to the Kubernetes Engine page and create a new cluster by specifying the desired configuration parameters.

    • Connect to Cluster − Use the "Connect" button on the cluster details page to connect to your cluster using kubectl.

    • Verify Installation − Type "kubectl get nodes" in your terminal window to verify that the installation was successful. Setting up a Kubernetes cluster can be time-consuming and complex, but once it's set up, it provides a highly scalable and flexible environment for deploying containerized applications.

Deploying MySQL Database on Kubernetes

Explanation of why MySQL database is needed for WordPress deployment on Kubernetes

MySQL is a popular open-source database management system used to store data for a wide range of applications. In the case of WordPress, MySQL is used to store all the content of your website including posts, pages, comments, and settings.

When deploying WordPress on Kubernetes, it's important to have a reliable and scalable database solution that can handle the increased workload. Kubernetes offers several options for deploying and managing databases such as MySQL.

By running MySQL in a containerized environment on Kubernetes, you can benefit from features like automatic scaling, high availability, and disaster recovery. Additionally, using containers allows you to isolate the database instance from other parts of your application stack which improves security and makes management easier.

Step-by-step instructions for deploying MySQL database on Kubernetes

To deploy a MySQL instance on Kubernetes requires creating a deployment object that defines how many replicas should be created along with specific configuration details like the image version or storage requirements. The following steps provide an overview of how to deploy MySQL using Helm charts−

  • Install Helm − Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes that simplifies the process of installing and managing applications in your cluster.

  • Add the stable repository − This provides access to pre-built charts that include popular software packages like MySQL.

  • Install the chart − Using Helm commands install mysql chart with required configurations

  • Verify installation − Check whether mysql pod has deployed successfully or not Once you have installed mysql pod successfully then you need to set it up so that wordpress instance can connect with it smoothly without any issue which will be covered in detail in upcoming sections.

Deploying WordPress Instance on Kubernetes

Overview of the Process for Deploying a WordPress Instance on Kubernetes

Deploying a WordPress instance on Kubernetes can seem daunting, but it is actually a straightforward process. The basic steps involved are creating a replica set to manage the number of WordPress pods, creating a service to expose the WordPress pods within the cluster, configuring persistent storage for data persistence, and finally deploying WordPress using the official Docker image.

The first step is to create a replica set that will manage the number of pods running WordPress. This can be done using a YAML file that specifies the desired state of the deployment.

The YAML file should include details such as how many replicas to run, which Docker image to use, and any environment variables that need to be set. Next, you will need to create a Kubernetes service so that other services in your cluster can communicate with your WordPress instance.

To do this you'll need to specify which port(s) should be exposed by the service and how it should route traffic from external sources. Once you have created your replica set and service, you'll need to configure persistent storage for data persistence.

There are several ways to achieve this such as using Persistent Volumes (PVs) or Persistent Volume Claims (PVCs). You'll also want to configure some form of backup or disaster recovery plan in case something goes wrong.

You're ready to deploy your WordPress instance using an official Docker image from Docker Hub or another registry. You can use kubectl commands or Helm Charts (a package manager for Kubernetes) depending on your preference.

Step-by-Step Instructions for Deploying a WordPress Instance on Kubernetes

To deploy your own instance of Wordpress on Kubernetes follow these steps −

  • Create a Namespace − Start by creating an isolated namespace where all resources related with Wordpress will live.

kubectl create namespace wordpress  
  • Deploy the Database − Create a persistent volume to hold the database data, create a service and deployment for a MySQL instance−

kubectl apply -f mysql-pv.yaml 
kubectl apply -f mysql-deployment.yaml kubectl apply -f mysql-service.yaml  
  • Deploy Wordpress − Create a persistent volume to hold the Wordpress data, create a deployment and service for the Wordpress instance−

 kubectl apply -f wordpress-pv.yaml 
kubectl apply -f wordpress-deployment.yaml kubectl apply -f wordpress-service.yaml  
  • Accessing your Wordpress site − The last step is to find out the IP address of your pod running WordPress.

minikube service wordpress --url  

Once you have done these steps you should have a WordPress instance deployed on top of Kubernetes that's ready to use. You can now start customizing it using your preferred themes and plugins, or further fine-tuning it with additional Kubernetes configurations if needed.


In this article, we have discussed the process of deploying a WordPress instance on Kubernetes. We went through the prerequisites needed for deployment, setting up a Kubernetes cluster, deploying MySQL database on Kubernetes and finally deploying WordPress instance on Kubernetes. We also discussed scaling and updating the deployment as well as monitoring and troubleshooting common issues.

Deploying WordPress instance on Kubernetes is a great way to ensure scalability and reliability of your WordPress website. Although it may seem like there are many steps involved in deploying a WordPress instance on Kubernetes, it is in fact quite straightforward once you understand the basic concepts.

Updated on: 10-Jul-2023


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