Cryptography is the art of communication between two users via coded messages. The science of cryptography emerged with the basic motive of providing security to the confidential messages transferred from one party to another.
Cryptography is defined as the art and science of concealing the message to introduce privacy and secrecy as recognized in information security.
The frequently used terms in cryptography are explained here −
The plain text message is the text which is readable and can be understood by all users. The plain text is the message which undergoes cryptography.
Cipher text is the message obtained after applying cryptography on plain text.
The process of converting plain text to cipher text is called encryption. It is also called as encoding.
The process of converting cipher text to plain text is called decryption. It is also termed as decoding.
The diagram given below shows an illustration of the complete process of cryptography −
The basic characteristics of modern cryptography are as follows −
It operates on bit sequences.
It uses mathematical algorithms for securing the information.
It requires parties interested in secure communication channel to achieve privacy.