Python Modules of Cryptography


In this chapter, you will learn in detail about various modules of cryptography in Python.

Cryptography Module

It includes all the recipes and primitives, and provides a high level interface of coding in Python. You can install cryptography module using the following command −

pip install cryptography

PIP Install


You can use the following code to implement the cryptography module −

from cryptography.fernet import Fernet
key = Fernet.generate_key()
cipher_suite = Fernet(key)
cipher_text = cipher_suite.encrypt("This example is used to demonstrate cryptography module")
plain_text = cipher_suite.decrypt(cipher_text)


The code given above produces the following output −


The code given here is used to verify the password and creating its hash. It also includes logic for verifying the password for authentication purpose.

import uuid
import hashlib

def hash_password(password):
   # uuid is used to generate a random number of the specified password
   salt = uuid.uuid4().hex
   return hashlib.sha256(salt.encode() + password.encode()).hexdigest() + ':' + salt

def check_password(hashed_password, user_password):
   password, salt = hashed_password.split(':')
   return password == hashlib.sha256(salt.encode() + user_password.encode()).hexdigest()

new_pass = input('Please enter a password: ')
hashed_password = hash_password(new_pass)
print('The string to store in the db is: ' + hashed_password)
old_pass = input('Now please enter the password again to check: ')

if check_password(hashed_password, old_pass):
   print('You entered the right password')
   print('Passwords do not match')


Scenario 1 − If you have entered a correct password, you can find the following output −

Correct Password

Scenario 2 − If we enter wrong password, you can find the following output −

Wrong Password


Hashlib package is used for storing passwords in a database. In this program, salt is used which adds a random sequence to the password string before implementing the hash function.