Construct Binary Tree from String in C++

C++Server Side ProgrammingProgramming

Suppose we have a string consisting of parenthesis and integers. We have to construct a binary tree from that string. The whole input represents a binary tree. It holds an integer that followed by zero, one or two pairs of parentheses. The integer represents the root's value and a pair of parenthesis contains a child binary tree with the same structure.

So, if the input is like "4(2(3)(1))(6(5))", then the output will be [3,2,1,4,5,6] (inorder traversal)

To solve this, we will follow these steps −

  • Define a function solve(), this will take s, idx,

  • if idx >= size of s, then −

    • return null

  • num := empty string

  • while (idx < size of s and s[idx] is not equal to '(' and s[idx] is not equal to ')'), do −

    • num := num + s[idx]

    • (increase idx by 1)

  • node = new node with value num

  • if idx < size of s and s[idx] is same as '(', then −

    • (increase idx by 1)

    • left of node := solve(s, idx)

    • (increase idx by 1)

    • if idx < size of s and s[idx] is same as '(', then −

      • (increase idx by 1)

      • right of node := solve(s, idx)

      • (increase idx by 1)

  • return node

  • From the main method do the following −

  • idx := 0

  • temp = new node with value -1

  • return solve(s, idx)

Example (C++)

Let us see the following implementation to get better understanding −

 Live Demo

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
class TreeNode{
   public:
      int val;
      TreeNode *left, *right;
      TreeNode(int data){
         val = data;
         left = NULL;
         right = NULL;
      }
};
void inord(TreeNode *root){
   if(root != NULL){
      inord(root->left);
      cout << root->val << " ";
      inord(root->right);
   }
}
class Solution {
public:
   TreeNode* solve(string s, int& idx){
      if (idx >= s.size())
         return NULL;
      string num = "";
      while (idx < s.size() && s[idx] != '(' && s[idx] != ')') {
         num += s[idx];
         idx++;
      }
      TreeNode* node = new TreeNode(stoi(num));
      if (idx < s.size() && s[idx] == '(') {
         idx++;
         node->left = solve(s, idx);
         idx++;
         if (idx < s.size() && s[idx] == '(') {
            idx++;
            node->right = solve(s, idx);
            idx++;
         }
      }
      return node;
   }
   TreeNode* str2tree(string s) {
      int idx = 0;
      TreeNode* temp = new TreeNode(-1);
      return solve(s, idx);
   }
};
main(){
   Solution ob;
   TreeNode *root = ob.str2tree("4(2(3)(1))(6(5))");
   inord(root);
}

Input

"4(2(3)(1))(6(5))"

Output

3 2 1 4 5 6
raja
Published on 16-Nov-2020 13:55:35
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