Found 429 Articles for Diagnosis & Treatment


Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:11:35


Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of menses. Amenorrhea can be physiological or pathological. It occurs if the hypothalamus and pituitary fail to provide appropriate gonadotropin stimulation to the ovary, resulting in inadequate production of estradiol or failure of ovulation and progesterone production. Amenorrhea can also occur if the ovaries fail to produce adequate amounts of estradiol despite normal and appropriate gonadotropin stimulation by the hypothalamus and pituitary. Physiological Amenorrhea can be due to physiological causes like prepuberty, pregnancy, lactation pathological amenorrhea, and menopause Pathological Amenorrhea can be primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhea is the failure to start ... Read More

Alzheimer’s Disease

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:09:24


Alzheimer’s disease also known as "senile dementia" is the most common type of dementia. It is an incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease. Alzheimer’s disease affects about 5.3 million people in the US. It was the 5th leading cause of death in 2015.AD affects more of the African American population than the Whites. In India, around 4 million people have Alzheimer’s Alzheimer’s disease is seen mostly in the age group of more than 65 years of age. Individuals mostly show memory loss, confusion, short attention span, personality changes, and loss of orientation. It was first described by German Physician Dr Alois ... Read More

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:06:15


Acute coronary disease is a disease of the heart in which there is a decrease in blood supply to the heart either because of the formation of the blood clot in the heart of the rupture of the plaque in the heart vessels. It mainly occurs secondary to atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome mainly presents with severe chest pain. Acute coronary syndrome can be with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina. These terms are given based on the presentation on the echocardiogram showing ST elevation or not. A sudden decrease in the blood flow to the ... Read More


Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:45:39


Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone after the growth plates have closed, i.e., in adulthood. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland that releases and regulates several hormones, including human growth hormone which is responsible for regulating growth. Whenever there is excess production of the growth hormone it causes bones to increase in size. If the growth hormone production is more in childhood that is before the close of growth plates it leads to an increase in height along with an increase in bone size. When the production of the growth hormone is present once the ... Read More

Acoustic Neuroma

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 13:59:40


Acoustic neuroma is the tumor of the eighth cranial nerve i.e., vestibulocochlear nerve. It is a slow-growing tumor with no known cause. It is also known as vestibular schwannoma. It is a Benign, Encapsulated, Slow-growing tumor on microscopic examination that shows elongated spindle cells with rod-shaped nuclei in rows or palisades. The acoustic neuroma occurs most commonly in the age group 40 to 60. Both the sexes are affected equally. It mainly arises from the Schwann cells of the vestibular part of the vestibulocochlear nerve at the Cerebro pontine angle, causing the widening and erosion of the canal. The tumor ... Read More

Acne: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:40:17


Acne is a very common follicular disorder that affects the susceptible hair follicles, most commonly found on the face, neck, and upper trunk. Both males and females are affected equally, but it is slightly earlier seen in girls. Acne becomes more marked at puberty and during adolescence as the endocrine glands that influence the secretions of the sebaceous glands are functioning at peak activity During puberty, androgens stimulate the sebaceous glands, causing them to enlarge and secrete natural oil, sebum, which rises to the top of the hair follicle and flows out onto the skin surface. In adolescents who develop ... Read More

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

Dr. Durgesh Kumar Sinha
Updated on 27-Jan-2023 14:41:52


The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the important ligaments which helps to maintain knee stability. Injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament are relatively more common knee injuries among athletes. They occur most frequently in those who play sports involving pivoting such as football, basketball, netball, soccer, gymnastics, and downhill skiing. The injury can be mild such as small tears, or sprain or can be severe when the ligament is completely torn. Both contact and non-contact injuries can occur, but non-contact tears and ruptures are most common when the limb is in non-contact and combined with valgus and internal rotation ... Read More

Absence Seizure

Bhaswati Mukherjee
Updated on 24-Jan-2023 13:53:42


Overview Absence Seizure or petit mal seizure is a widely discussed topic in recent times. This health issue has become quite common in children in recent times. However, children can suffer from this problem without any long-term diseases. It is a situation where the patient stares out at a space for a few seconds then returns to the normal state immediately. In this situation, the patients lose consciousness for a while. Many think this problem can be due to sudden injury, but it is not that. Children can suffer from this problem due to genetic causes. Mainly children between 4 ... Read More

What Are Cephalosporins? Usage, Warning, Side Effects, Drug Interactions

Bhaswati Mukherjee
Updated on 24-Jan-2023 12:11:51


Cephalosporins are a group of antibiotics highly beneficial for treating bacterial infections. They work by stopping the growth of bacteria, which helps reduce the severity and duration of symptoms caused by the condition. The drug can be used to treat skin, urinary tract, and respiratory infections, among others. Let's discuss what cephalosporins are and their usage, warnings, side effects, and drug interactions. We will also provide some tips for using cephalosporins safely and effectively. How do Cephalosporins Work? They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Cephalosporins are typically well-tolerated, but they can cause kidney damage in some people. ... Read More

Urinalysis: Purposes, Types, Results

Bhaswati Mukherjee
Updated on 24-Jan-2023 11:06:51


Urinalysis is a thorough test that looks for chemicals in a person's urine and measures how much of them are there. The person is put through this test. A simple lab test that doesn't hurt the person can tell if there are proteins, sugar, red blood cells, bacteria, or other substances in the urine. This test can easily find out whether any of these things are there. This test can be done in a hospital or doctor's office. Urinalysis results can determine if someone has diabetes, a kidney infection, a bladder infection, or an infection of the urinary tract. ... Read More