Found 24650 Articles for Academic

Micturition - Urination Process

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 19-Jan-2023 15:16:42
Introduction Different processes take place inside the body for proper functioning. As a result of various processes happening inside our body, metabolic wastes will be produced and are needed to be removed. Excretion helps in the removal of unwanted substances from our bodies. The kidney is considered to be the primary excretory organ. Its main function is to filter the blood and remove excretory products, especially urea in the form of urine. A pair of ureters come out from each kidney that transports urine to the urinary bladder. From the urinary bladder, the urethra arises helping the bladder to expel ... Read More


Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 19-Jan-2023 14:24:32
What are Microfilaments ? Fibers found in the cytoplasm of cells support cell shape and mobility as well as likely serve as anchoring sites for other cellular structures. These fibers are referred to as the cytoskeleton when grouped. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules are the 3 kinds of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton, with microfilaments being the smallest. Actin, the utmost prevalent protein in the majority of animal cells, is a component of microfilaments also called actin filaments. Actin protein subunits that make up the microfilaments are tiny (7 nm) molecules that polymerize to create elongated actin filaments which ... Read More


Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 19-Jan-2023 14:14:21
Introduction All living organisms possess cells. It is most important structurally, biologically, and functionally. By division of cells, they increase the numbers and form all the structures in the body. There are three essential parts present in a cell, namely the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Cell organelles are present in the cytoplasm. Different cell organelles that are present in the cytoplasm have different functions. Microbodies are cell organelles that are present both in plant and animal cells. In this tutorial, we will learn about microbodies in depth. What are Microbodies? The term microbody was introduced and discovered by scientists ... Read More

Mammalia Diversity In Living Organisms

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 17:27:12
Introduction The animal kingdom is large and extremely diverse. Classifying them is necessary to know and understand in spite of their large size. Classification allows an easier understanding of the complexity, evolution patterns, and interrelationships among animals. Primarily animals are classified based on the presence or absence of vertebral column.Vertebrates are those having a vertebral column and invertebrates are with no vertebral column. Invertebrate phyla include Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata. Vertebrate phyla include Phylum Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. Members of phylum Mammalia are called mammals and are the most advanced members of the ... Read More

Cartilaginous Joints

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 16:19:56
Introduction A point of connection between two or more bones can be referred to as a joint. The joint helps in movement and provides firmness to the pelvis and skull structures. These joints can show no movement, slight movement, or full movement. Joints can be categorized into synovial joints, fibrous joints, and cartilaginous joints. Cartilaginous joints are the ones that join two or more joints together. Two types of cartilaginous joints exist - primary cartilaginous joints and secondary cartilaginous joints. What are Cartilaginous Joints? Cartilaginous joints are the special type of joints in which two bones are connected by ... Read More

Carnivores and Herbivores

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 15:48:46
Introduction Every living thing in the biosphere or habitat in which we exist is dependent upon one another for sustenance. Because some plants and animals, as we all know, are unable to make food on their own, they must rely on other plants and animals for nourishment. All animals have unique eating preferences and dietary needs. Animals can be categorised into herbivores and carnivores based on their nutritional needs and eating preferences. What are Herbivores? Those animals that feed on plants or plant matter are referred to as herbivores. They eat plants for their sustenance. Herbivores have different ... Read More

Cardiac Output

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 15:40:43
Introduction The muscular organ of the human body known as the heart acts as a pump. The heart pumps continuously from birth to death. The heart, the muscular organ is divided into four-chambers i.e. two upper receiving chambers and two lower distributing chambers. The different parts of the heart include a wall of the heart, four chambers, valves, blood vessels, and the electrical conduction system. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. In this tutorial, we will learn about cardiac output in depth. What is Cardiac Output? Cardiac output is the amount of blood ... Read More

Carbon Cycle

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 15:19:48
Introduction Carbon is the most important element and forms the basis of all life found on Earth. Humans, animals, plants, invertebrates, prokaryotes, etc. are mainly made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is the main component of DNA, RNA, and various primary and secondary metabolites found in higher and lower organisms. Excess of carbon or absence of carbon can cause a severe impact on the functioning of the entire environment. What is the Carbon Cycle? Carbon cycle is a process of recycling carbon atoms from the atmosphere to earth and then back to the atmosphere. Main reservoirs of carbon are ... Read More

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Bitopi Kaashyap
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 15:11:57
Introduction Complex carbohydrates are consumed by living organisms and they get converted into simple glucose molecules which involve ten significant biochemical pathways. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy in our diet. They are often involved in the formation of different components of a cell as well as performing various other functions. The term sugar may be defined as Carbohydrates that are readily soluble in water and are sweet in taste. They can be broadly classified into 3 major groups- monosaccharide, disaccharide, and oligosaccharide. The monosaccharides can be further subdivided on the basis of the presence of different functional groups ... Read More

Need For Hygiene and Sanitation

Praveen Varghese Thomas
Updated on 18-Jan-2023 15:15:44
Introduction Hygiene and Sanitation are the two most important concepts and they are very essential in everyday life. It is important that one have to follow well hygiene and sanitation for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It is important to maintain good personal hygiene and hand washing because it will help to prevent the spread of illness and diseases. Hygiene and sanitation is the most important because it helps during times of emergency and natural disaster. What is Hygiene? Hygiene refers to the science of health and how to maintain it. It can also be described as a practice or condition ... Read More
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