Rainwater Harvesting


Harvesting the water from rain is very relevant in the current situation. Initially, in rural areas, harvesting rainwater was very common and it is mostly used for agricultural purposes. In the current situation, different advanced technology and innovative tools are used to harvest the water rain. It is also used in the process of horticulture. In the current situation, rainwater is used for different housekeeping activities like washing clothes as well as cleaning purposes.

What is Rainwater Harvesting?

Harvesting water from rain generally is the system of rainwater collection where the collected rainwater is used for different purposes as complementation of underground water. Earlier, the rainwater was mostly conserved with the help of traditional methods but recently different advanced tools and technology is used for this purpose. Harvesting rainwater is very effective for the overuse of ground water as well as depletion.

The Process of Harvesting Rainwater

The harvesting of rainwater is not just collecting rainwater but more than that. For harvesting, storing, and purifying process have to be completed and after that, it will be ready for use. There are several components required for harvesting like catchment. It is mostly used for collecting as well as storing captured water from rain.

Figure 1: Harvesting rainwater

A system for conveyance is also required for the transportation of water from the catchment to the recharge point. Flush is used to flush out the first spell of rain. A filter is also used for collecting rainwater as well as eliminating pollutants. The total process of harvesting is completed by a systematic technique as well as maintaining hygiene.

Methods of Harvesting Rainwater

Rainwater is mainly harvested with the help of some traditional processes and currently, some scientific tools and techniques are also used for this process. Mostly two different harvesting processes can be seen.

Figure 2: Harvesting of rainwater on the rooftop

Harvesting of Rainwater on the Rooftop

It appears as an ideal place for rainwater harvesting in real-time. Here, fresh rainwater falls on the rooftop without any medium. For this type of harvesting, some essential components are required like a flush, a transportation system, catchments as well a filter.

Harvesting of Rainwater on the Surface

It is another important process of collecting rainwater, is comparatively newer than other harvesting processes. This process is mainly done on a large surface. For this purpose, mainly large parks or grounds are selected as a large space is required. Harvesting of rainwater on the surface requires some advanced tools and techniques.

Benefits of Harvesting Rainwater

There are several advantages to harvesting the water from rain, as it is very much required in future. Not only the rainwater but also other types of water can be reused also.

Figure 3: Harvesting rainwater circle

  • It is one of the most cost-effective processes of conservation of water.

  • It aids in reducing the bill of water as water is always stored.

  • It is helpful for reducing dependence on underground water, as it is very limited.

  • The quality of rainwater is severally improved.

  • There is no requirement for importing water as it is harvested.

  • This technology is mostly eco-friendly as it can prevent soil erosion as well as mitigate water pollution.

  • The harvesting technology is very easy to use and that is why it is applied commonly in the current situation.

  • Harvesting rainwater improved the situation of agriculture as well as the working process of different factories, as it supplies the required water at any time. Several factories own their personal harvesting system.

Demerits of Harvesting Rainwater

There are some disadvantages for harvesting rainwater as well, which do create some challenges for the users.

  • Daily maintenance is required for this system so it is very laborious.

  • Rainfall is very irregular so depending on the rainfall it sometimes creates some obstacles.

  • The conservation of rainwater should be maintained in a hygienic process as mosquitoes as well as some water-borne diseases can affect it.

  • Technical skills are required for this process so the users should have some technical knowledge.

  • It is totally a technical process that is mostly used in the urban area rather than the rural side.


Rainwater harvesting is one of the most efficient processes that have a great impact on the environment and it is also very effective to mitigate the environmental pollution rate. In the current scenario, most places are suffering from lack of underground water so this harvesting process is very useful for them as it supplies drinking water. In the rural area, the conserved water is mostly used for the development of agricultural processes, as it is one of the great sources of water for irrigation.


Q1. What are the components required for harvesting rainwater?

Ans. For harvesting rainwater, several essential components are required like a catchment which is mostly used for collecting rainwater directly and a system of convenience through which the water passes to a tank for preservation. A flush, as well as filter, is also required for collecting water as well as removing different pollutants.

Q2. What is the application of harvested rainwater?

Ans. The harvested rainwater is mostly used for agricultural purposes and horticulture. Besides this, process is also very useful for different household activities like washing as well as cleansing purposes. It is a great source of drinking water in the urban area as well.

Q3. What factors affect the rainwater amount during harvesting?

Ans. The harvested rainwater amount is totally dependent on the features of catchments as well as runoff quantum. The capacity of the water storage tank is also a factor for determining the rainwater amount during harvesting.

Updated on: 13-Apr-2023


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