Found 1319 Articles for MCA

The Physical Layer of OSI Model

Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:21:49

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The physical layer (Layer 1) deals with transmission of individual bits from one node to another over a physical medium.The main functions of the physical layer are as follows −It defines the physical characteristics and functions of the physical devices and interfaces so that transmission can occur. It states the number of pins in each of the devices as well as the purpose of each pin.It lays out the transmission medium and type of signal for transmitting the bits, i.e., electrical pulses, optical pulses or radio signals.It defines the procedure of encoding of the bits, for example, how many volts ... Read More

The OSI Reference Model

Vikyath Ram
Updated on 02-Sep-2023 11:45:25

48K+ Views

OSI or Open System Interconnection model was developed by International Standards Organization (ISO). It gives a layered networking framework that conceptualizes how communications should be done between heterogeneous systems. It has seven interconnected layers. The seven layers of the OSI Model are a physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer, as shown in the following diagram −The physical layer, data link layer and the network layer are the network support layers. The layers manage a physical transfer of data from one device to another. Session layer, presentation layer, and application layer ... Read More

Reference Models in Computer Network

Paul Richard
Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:23:16

11K+ Views

In computer networks, reference models give a conceptual framework that standardizes communication between heterogeneous networks.The two popular reference models are −OSI ModelTCP/IP Protocol SuiteOSI ModelOSI or Open System Interconnection model was developed by International Standards Organization (ISO). It gives a layered networking framework that conceptualizes how communication should be done between heterogeneous systems. It has seven interconnected layers.The seven layers of the OSI Model are a physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer. The hierarchy is depicted in the following figure −TCP / IP PROTOCOL SUITETCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, while ... Read More

Connectionless Services

Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:24:16

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A Connectionless service is a data communication between two nodes where the sender sends data without ensuring whether the receiver is available to receive the data. Here, each data packet has the destination address and is routed independently irrespective of the other packets. Thus the data packets may follow different paths to reach the destination. There’s no need to setup connection before sending a message and relinquish it after the message has been sent. The data packets in a connectionless service are usually called datagrams.Protocols for connectionless services are −Internet Protocol (IP)User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)Connectionless services ... Read More

Connection-Oriented Services

Jai Janardhan
Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:24:55

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A connection-oriented service is one that establishes a dedicated connection between the communicating entities before data communication commences. It is modeled after the telephone system. To use a connection-oriented service, the user first establishes a connection, uses it and then releases it. In connection-oriented services, the data streams/packets are delivered to the receiver in the same order in which they have been sent by the sender.Connection-oriented services may be done in either of the following ways −Circuit-switched connection: In circuit switching, a dedicated physical path or a circuit is established between the communicating nodes and then data stream is transferred.Virtual circuit-switched ... Read More

Design Issues for the Layers of Computer Networks

Rishi Raj
Updated on 12-Sep-2023 03:13:54

25K+ Views

A number of design issues exist for the layer to layer approach of computer networks. Some of the main design issues are as follows −ReliabilityNetwork channels and components may be unreliable, resulting in loss of bits while data transfer. So, an important design issue is to make sure that the information transferred is not distorted.ScalabilityNetworks are continuously evolving. The sizes are continually increasing leading to congestion. Also, when new technologies are applied to the added components, it may lead to incompatibility issues. Hence, the design should be done so that the networks are scalable and can accommodate such additions and ... Read More

Protocol and Protocol Hierarchies

Jai Janardhan
Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:27:11

5K+ Views

A protocol is a set of rules and conventions agreed upon and followed by the communicating entities for data communication. A protocol outlines the what, how and when of a communication.The three aspects of a protocol are −Syntax − It defines the format of data that is to be sent or received.Semantics − It defines the meaning of each section of bits that are transferred.Timings − It defines the time at which data is transferred as well as the speed at which it is transferred.Protocol HierarchiesMost networks are organized as a stack of layers, one on the top of another. ... Read More

Network Software

Vikyath Ram
Updated on 17-Jun-2020 12:27:40

11K+ Views

Network software encompasses a broad range of software used for design, implementation, and operation and monitoring of computer networks. Traditional networks were hardware based with software embedded. With the advent of Software – Defined Networking (SDN), software is separated from the hardware thus making it more adaptable to the ever-changing nature of the computer network.Functions of Network SoftwareHelps to set up and install computer networksEnables users to have access to network resources in a seamless mannerAllows administrations to add or remove users from the networkHelps to define locations of data storage and allows users to access that dataHelps administrators and ... Read More


Paul Richard
Updated on 17-Jun-2020 11:58:21


Internetworking is the technique of interconnecting myriad networks together, using connecting devices like routers and gateways. The different networks are owned by different entities that widely vary in terms of network technologies. These networks may be public, private, government, business or academic in nature, whose sizes may vary from small LANs to large WANs. The resulting network of networks is generally termed as internetwork or simply internet.To enable efficient data communication among multiple networks, the connected networks decide upon a common protocol stack or communication methodology. The two architectural models that define the protocols used for communication are −Open System ... Read More

Home Networks

Updated on 17-Jun-2020 11:59:01

1K+ Views

A home network is a small sized LAN that is used to connected devices within the small area of a home. It facilitates sharing of files, peripheral devices, programs and Internet access among the computers in a home. Home networks may be wired, i.e. connections within devices are done with cables; or wireless, i.e. connections are provided using Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.Purpose of Home NetworksModemRouterNetwork SwitchNetwork BridgeHome Automation Controller