Pascal - Constants


A constant is an entity that remains unchanged during program execution. Pascal allows only constants of the following types to be declared −

  • Ordinal types
  • Set types
  • Pointer types (but the only allowed value is Nil).
  • Real types
  • Char
  • String

Declaring Constants

Syntax for declaring constants is as follows −

identifier = constant_value;

The following table provides examples of some valid constant declarations −

Constant Type Examples
Ordinal(Integer)type constant valid_age = 21;
Set type constant Vowels = set of (A,E,I,O,U);
Pointer type constant P = NIL;
Real type constant

e = 2.7182818;

velocity_light = 3.0E+10;

Character type constant Operator = '+';
String type constant president = 'Johnny Depp';

The following example illustrates the concept −

program const_circle (input,output);
PI = 3.141592654;

r, d, c : real;   {variable declaration: radius, dia, circumference}

   writeln('Enter the radius of the circle');
   d := 2 * r;
   c :=  PI * d;
   writeln('The circumference of the circle is ',c:7:2);

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Enter the radius of the circle
The circumference of the circle is 144.51

Observe the formatting in the output statement of the program. The variable c is to be formatted with total number of digits 7 and 2 digits after the decimal sign. Pascal allows such output formatting with the numerical variables.