What is Reproductive System (in humans)?


The technique of giving birth to a new child is essential for parents as it can grow the generations among the human civilisations. For parents, this procedure is known as reproduction. Moreover, it is one of the significant biological methods that helps to continue the human culture. The procedure of reproduction in humans happens through internal fertilisation which is completed through sexual intercourse between males and females. The identical traits among the children such as the same body colour and eye colour are common.

Types of Reproduction

There are primarily two types of reproductive systems −

Sexual Reproduction

The method of reproduction is complicated and it involves the formation and transfer of gametes where fertilisation has a huge role to construct zygotes. After the formation of zygotes via fertilisation, the process of cell division starts which leads to a newborn in future.

Asexual Reproduction

The method of reproduction implicates one parent and the new children produced are genetically identical to the parent.

Reproduction in Human Beings

Figure 1: Human gametes fuse to form zygote

In the human reproductive system, male and female reproductive systems are distinctive. The process is depending on the sexual activities although there is a difference in the sexual organs in males and females. The process of reproduction refers to producing new children through the fusion of gametes. Both males and females have different reproductive systems, where males have testes and females consist of a pair of ovaries.

Male Reproductive System

Figure 2: Male reproductive system

The gametes in males which are also referred to as sperms are produced within the system of reproductive organs in males. Sperms are tiny unicellular structures that consist of a head, middle portion, and a tail. The followings consist of the system of male reproductive system −


A pair of organs that are formed in oval-shaped pouch called a scrotum is reliable for the delivery of male hormone testosterone and sperms.


It is the area where the sperm are produced and the place where the testicles remain. An appropriate temperature is required in sperm production.

Ejaculatory ducts

They are formed by the cooperation of a vas deferens and duct. Additionally, ducts are primarily reliable to carry sperms and secretions of seminal vesicles.

Seminal Vesicle

These are a pair of sac-like structures available near the bladder base. It's reliable to conduct activities for the secretion of alkaline and it is reliable to form almost 60% of the overall semen. The pH level of the seminal fluid is 7.4.

Prostate Gland

The gland encircles the urethra and has the purpose of nourishing and enhancing the activities by the gland secretion with the activity of the spermatozoa to swim.

Cowper’s Gland

These glands are available on either side of the urethra and the secretion of alkaline. The secretion of alkaline neutralises the acids which are available in the urine.


A structure that is like the cylindrical tube that serves two functions in the male body, such as the excretory organ and reproductive organ the penis. Through the penis, sperm are released during intercourse.

Functions of the Male Reproductive System

The functions of the male reproductive system includes the occurrence of the spermatogenesis and the process of delivering sperm. The penis is the primary organ that releases the sperm and put it into the female’s vagina.

Female Reproductive System

Figure 3: Female reproductive system

The uniqueness of the female reproductive system is it remains active during fertilisation as well as before and after. The followings parts are connected with the female reproductive system −

  • Ovaries: It is a paired structure and the primary organs in the female body to participate in sexual activities. Ovaries are reliable to produce and keep ovum. The production of the female sex hormones is possible due to the ovaries.

  • Fallopian Tubes: These are recognised as the fertilisation site that establishes a connection between the uterus and ovaries.

  • Uterus: The site where the embryo develops is called the uterus.

  • Vagina: It is the organ that connects the cervix with the external parts of the female body. It also constructs the way to connect with penis during the intercourse.

Functions of the Female Reproductive System

The function of the female reproductive system refers to the production of the gametes in females which is called egg/ovum. During the stages of puberty, the eggs placed in the female ovaries starts to become mature. Additionally, it protects the embryo.


The reproductive procedure of humans helps in carrying forward the generations. The process of fertilisation help conducts the fusion of the sperm and eggs. The procedure also ensures that the birth of a newborn never holds the same identity and traits. Hormones in male and female bodies play a major role in the system of reproduction.


Q1. What is the process of reproduction in human beings?

Ans. The process takes place when the zygote is produced due to the fertilisation process and due to the fusion of the eggs and sperm. The zygote process divides into different cells and constructs into an embryo.

Q2. What is the importance of human reproduction?

Ans. Reproduction is an essential process that occurs in the biological process that happens among different living animals. In humans, reproduction recreates a vital role in managing the development of the generations.

Q3. What is fertilisation?

Ans. The fusion of the female and male gametes or the egg and sperm that results in the formation of a zygote refers to fertilisation. Due to this process, the zygote evolves and follows the cell division process.

Updated on: 24-Apr-2023


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