Ethernet is a LAN architecture developed by XEROX and extended by DEC, IC and Xerox. It is specified by IEEE 802.3, and it defines two categories.
These categories are as follows−
Baseband uses digital signals, while broadband uses analog signals. Baseband is further divided into five standard names as follows −
The first numbers used in all standards, i.e., 10, 1, 100, indicate the data rate in Mbps, while the last numbers 2, 5, and letter T indicate the maximum cable length or type of cable. Only one specification is defined for broadband, and that is 10 Broad 36. 10 Base 5 means a data rate of 10 Mbps and cable length restriction of 500 meters.
The network uses Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) technique. When multiple users access a single line, there is always a chance of overlapping and destroying data called collisions. Thus, if traffic increases on a single line, there are always chances of collision.
The carrier senses several access with collision Detection (ICMP/CD) is a technique that can help detect a collision, quits the current transmission and retransmission of data and takes place after waiting for some predetermined time to get the line cleared.
There are various electrical significations for Ethernet, which are as follows:
Baseband system uses Manchester digital encoding while the broadband system uses differential PSK.
The Ethernet LANs supports a data rate between 1 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Baseband defines 1, 10, and 100 Mbps data rates, while broadband defines a data rate of 10 Mbps.
IEEE 802.3 specifies only one type of frame format that includes seven fields. These fields are as follows−
The frame format is demonstrated in the figure