Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology measure for exchanging information over short areas (using short-wavelength radio channels in the ISM band from 2400-2480 MHz) from permanent and mobile devices.
It can be creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. It was made by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994, and it was initially conceived as a wireless method to RS-232 data cables. It can connect multiple devices, overcoming issues of synchronization.
Bluetooth is handled by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 14,000 member companies in telecommunication, computing, networking, and used electronics. Bluetooth is a free technology and it is provided by the mobile phone operators who are having the capability of GSM and CDMA technology. It facilitates radio wave frequency as a medium and is applicable for the 1, 10, and 100 meters distance. It enabled devices to have a built-in microchip. Wi-Fi uses a similar frequency but the power consumption of Wi-Fi is high so it makes more dynamic signals.
Bluetooth uses radio waves that work at 2.4 GHz bands. It is also used to transfer files from mobile phones or PDA devices to computers. Microsoft Windows XP with the service pack 2 has built-in support for Bluetooth technology. It defines the wireless standards to maintain secure data communication.
A typical Bluetooth device consists of an RS transceiver, protocol stacks, and basebands and it does not require installing the additional drivers to use the Bluetooth technology and it can connect all the office peripherals such as a computer with the printer, computer with scanner, and computer with a laptop. It provides a speed of 1-2 Mbps.
Bluetooth uses a radio technology known as frequency-hopping spread spectrum. It can chop up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each; centered from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400-2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands). This range is in the worldwide unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band.
Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol along with a master-slave architecture. One master can interact with up to 7 slaves in a piconet. All devices share the master’s clock. Packet exchange depends on the primary clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 μs intervals. Two clock ticks create a slot of 625 μs; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 μs.