Calcium is an essential element which is required for the normal functioning of life. Our body requires calcium in an ideal amount. Total calcium in our body is about 1 - 1.5 Kg. Normal blood calcium levels differ from 9 to 11 mg/dl. Hypocalcemia is a condition in which there is a reduction in calcium levels.
When serum calcium level is less than 8.8 mg/dl, then it is called as the Hypocalcemic condition. A slight reduction in calcium levels does not make any damage to an individual and can be easily brought back to normal. But if there is a serious decrease in calcium levels, then it prompts numerous disorders.
Suggested Dietary Allowance of calcium every day considered essential for the upkeep of good wellbeing by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences is
Child - 100 mg/dl.
Adults - 500 mg/dl.
Senile/pregnancy/lactation - 1200 mg/dl.
The decrease in Serum Calcium level might be caused because of:
Dietary deficiency − When one doesn't consume calcium-rich diet like milk, yogurt and so on.
Malnutrition − Due to the way of life or any renal issue leading to excess calcium loss from the body.
Hypoparathyroidism − Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is in charge of increasing calcium levels in our body by bone resorption. In Hypoparathyroidism, PTH discharge is diminished prompting diminished blood calcium levels. Even surgical removal of thyroid gland cause damage to parathyroid gland. This, in turn, affects calcium levels in the body.
Renal Disorders − The kidney tubules will not be able to absorb calcium, leading to excess calcium loss from the body through urine.
Vitamin D Deficiency − causing diminished intestinal calcium assimilation due to decreased exposure to sunlight or any hepatic diseases or decreased renal synthesis of calcitriol.
Menopause − Estrogen, which is a female hormone plays a vital role in calcium metabolism. It is responsible for maintenance of bone calcium levels in the body. After menopause, estrogen levels in the blood are decreased. This leads to excess calcium loss and this may lead to a condition called osteoporosis.
Pancreatitis , hypomagnesemia , hypoalbuminemia can also have an indirect effect on calcium levels in the body.