What are the types of Cryptosystems in information security?

There are various types of cryptosystem which are as follows −

Private Key cryptosystems − Symmetric encryption is also known as private-key encryption or secret-key encryption. It contains using the similar key for encryption and decryption. Encryption contains using an operation (an algorithm) to the data to be encrypted using the private key to create them meaningless.

The main disadvantage of a secret-key cryptosystem is associated to the exchange of keys. Symmetric encryption depends on the swap of a secret (keys).

Public-key cryptosystems − Public-key cryptosystems is also known as asymmetric cryptography. It is a type of cryptographic algorithms which needed two separate keys, one of which is private and one of which is public. Although different, the two parts of this key pair are numerically connected.

The public key can be used to encrypt plaintext or to check a digital signature; whereas the private key can be used to decrypt cipher text or to make a digital signature.

The term asymmetric from the use of multiple keys to implement these opposite functions, each the inverse of the other as contrasted with conventional (symmetric) cryptography which based on the similar key to implement both.

Digital signatures − Digital signatures in which a message is signed with the sender's private key and can be checked by anyone who has approach to the sender's public key. This verification validates that the sender had access to the private key, and thus is likely to be the person related to the public key.

This also provides that the message has not been alter with, as some guidance of the message will result in changes to the encoded message digest, which otherwise remains unaffected among the sender and receiver.

Hash Functions − A cryptographic hash function is a hash function which is treated practically impossible to invert, that is, to regenerate the input information from its hash value alone.

These one-way hash functions have been known as the workhorses of modern cryptography. The input information are known as the message, and the hash value is known as the message digest or simply the digest.

The property of hash functions are as follows −

  • It can be simply to calculate the hash value for any given message.

  • It can be inaccessible to generate a message that has a given hash.

  • It can be inaccessible to change a message without changing the hash.

  • It can be inaccessible to find two different messages with the same hash.

Biometric Systems − Biometrics is an authentication approach that uses fingerprint or facial scans and iris or voice identification to recognize users. A biometric scanning device takes a user's biometric information, including an iris pattern or fingerprint scan, and transform it into digital data a computer can interpret and check.

Biometrics can be used for both physical access to corporate architecture and inside access to enterprise computers and systems. Biometrics are generally used as a form of authentication in a wider two-factor or multifactor authentication system.