Goosebumps are created in the body when the hair on the skin raises or stands straight up causing bumps on the skin as a reaction to certain situations like cold, fear, shock and sometimes due to a sense of nostalgia or something awe-inspiring.
Goosebumps are a mechanical muscle contraction that occurs as a result of the release of a stress hormone in the body. Adrenalin rushes through veins, there is an increased heartbeat, trembling in the hands, tingling in the stomach and sweat forms in palms all as a part of one feeling. Goosebumps occur at the nape of the neck and also on the arms.
In extreme cold weather conditions, the nerves get activated as the body works hard to maintain its constant temperature.
The blood vessels are constricted as a result in an attempt to preserve body heat.
This sympathetic nerve stimulation of skin ends in giving goose bumps in an attempt to preserve the body heat and protect it from outside cold and chilling weather.
When there is a difference in temperature and effect of body heat.
When fever occurs, the hypothalamus attempts to regulate body temperature by increasing its level to an above normal level. This triggers stimulation of nerves and goose bumps occur on the skin showing signs of change in body heat and temperature.
Sometimes when one faces a dangerous situation or is subject to fear hair stands on its end for e.g., when one is chased by a mad dog or one is watching a horror film one is scared beyond their wit's end resulting in goose bumps.
Sensual arousal, love, joy, admiration, anger, disgust, hatred and sadness are all intense emotions that could activate one's sympathetic nervous system causing goose bumps as a reaction to these intense feelings.
When people suffer spinal chord injuries or they face a disorder called Dysreflexia there occurs an autonomic condition where the adrenal glands and other hormones in the body get affected and are released for no reason whatsoever.
This abnormal condition results in unexplainable goose bumps on the skin or body for no reason whatsoever.
Being chased by a mad dog or a mad person. Running away with fear.
Trying to face one's boss without completing the project, feeling extremely guilty.
Attending an interview for the first time, with a fear of failure and disappointment.
Waiting for a medical test report or result of a major test in a diagnostic center, when we are suspecting some dreadful disease.
Waiting for exam result announcement.
Awaiting the arrival of loved ones and seeing them after a long time.