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Write a note on how forests influence the quality of our air, soil and water resources.
Deforestation is the destruction of trees and forests for agriculture, human habitation, urbanization, mining, and industrial purposes, leading to devastating effects on the environment.
Trees and plants absorb water from the earth through their roots. This absorbed water goes back into the atmosphere through transpiration from leaves. Water vapor is the main cause of rain.
During deforestation, less water will evaporate into the atmosphere and thus can cause reduced rainfall.
Forests improve the quality of air, soil, and water resources through the following means:
(i) Air: Forests consist of trees that purify the atmosphere by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen during the process of photosynthesis. Trees also help in maintaining the temperature of the environment through transpiration. As plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, they help in controlling the greenhouse effect and, thereby, global warming.
(ii) Soil: Trees and plants growing in the forest withhold the soil, therefore preventing soil erosion. Plants, along with decomposers, help in maintaining the nutrient cycle by adding nutrients to the soil.
(iii) Water: The forest is responsible for increasing the moisture content in the air and it also helps in bringing the rain. Plants play an important role in maintaining the underground water level, thereby maintaining the water cycle into the atmosphere.
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