Explain Double Fertilization in plants.

Double fertilization involves the fusion of one female gametophyte with two male gametes. In angiosperms, when the two sperm cells fertilize the synergid cell of the ovule, two structures will form, such as the zygote and endosperm. Hence, it is known as double fertilization.

One out of two sperm cells fuses with the egg cell and forms a diploid (2n) zygote. The other sperm cell fuses with the two polar nuclei and forms a triploid (3n) primary endosperm nucleus (PEN).

The primary endosperm nucleus gets developed into the primary endosperm cell (PEC) and then into the endosperm. The endosperm is formed by the fusion of three haploid nuclei, hence it is called triple fusion. The zygote becomes an embryo after numerous cell divisions.


The fusing of a male gamete and a female gamete is the first step in the formation of a zygote, which later develops into an embryo during the process of sexual reproduction. The seeds that are produced have the potential to give rise to new plants.

The process of sexual reproduction in plants can be broken down into three distinct stages:

1. There are two distinct kinds of pollination, which are referred to as self-pollination and cross-pollination. It is possible for pollen grains to move from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or of blossoms from other plants.

2. The creation of the zygote occurs when, following pollination, the male gamete travels from the stigma to the ovary by way of the style of the pistil. A zygote is created when a male gamete and a female gamete are combined.

3. The development of the fruit and the seed occurs the following fertilization when a zygote transforms into an embryo. The ovary matures into the fruit, and the ovules grow into the seeds.


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 10-Oct-2022


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