Neural Control and Coordination



Introduction

Coordination is the process that aids in the function and interaction of the organs and complements the function of each other. The neutral system helps in the integration of the bodily functions of humans. The neural system provides an organized network to point-to-point connections which are helpful in rapid coordination. It functions with the endocrine system that helps in rendering the chemical integration with the help of hormones.

What is the Neural System?

The neural system assists in the functionalities of various organs in the human body. It is composed of highly specialized cells that are known as neurons that can receive and transmit various forms of signals. As opined by Byrne (2019), the organization of the neural system is quite simple in lower invertebrates. For example, in Hydra, is made of a network of neurons. The neural system is much better organized in insects, it has several ganglia.

Parts of the Human nervous system

Figure 1: Human nervous system

Central Nervous system (CNS)

  • In the case of vertebrates, the central nervous system is quite hollow, dorsal and non-ganglionated. In the case of invertebrates, it is ventral, solid, and also has ganglions.

  • The central nervous system is further subdivided into the spinal cord and the brain.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • It is made of nerves that extend between the central nervous system and various other body parts.

  • This is made of cranial and spinal nerves.

  • PNS controls the voluntary functions of the body.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

  • This is made of nerve fibers and it controls the involuntary functions of a body.

  • The Autonomous nervous system (ANS) is made of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

Transmission of Nerve Impulses

Figure 2: Nerve synapses

  • Nerves impulses are transmitted from one neuron to the other through various synapses which are formed by the membranes of a pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neuron.

  • The synapses are of two types that is electrical synapses and chemical synapses

Neural Control and Coordination MCQs

Q1. which of the following is a crucial function of the neuroglial cells is to protect and support?

a. Nephron

b. Myoid cells

c. Neurons

d. None of the above

Ans: c. Neurons

Q2. Which of these is a function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

a. Stimulation of oil and sweat glands in the skin

b. Construction of pupil

c. Acceleration of heartbeat

d. Contraction of hair follicles

Ans: b. Contraction of pupil

Q3. What is the main constituent of the cutaneous plexus and the papillary plexus?

a. Specialised cells that are responsible for cutaneous sensation

b. A network of arteries that is helpful in the provision of dermal supply

c. A network of nerves helps in providing dermal sensation

d. Gland cells that release cutaneous secretions

Ans: c. A network of nerves helps in providing dermal sensation

Q4. Which of the following events is not involved in the generation of excitation and contraction coupling?

a. Generation of end-plate potential.

b. Release of calcium from troponin.

c. Formation of cross-linkages between actin and myosin

d. ATP to ADP hydrolysis

Ans: b. Release of calcium from troponin

Q5. Which of the following statement is correct for a particular psychotropic drug?

a. Barbiturates help in relaxation and temporary euphoria.

b. Hashish is responsible for thought perceptions and hallucinations.

c. Opium is useful for stimulation of the nervous system and it causes hallucinations

d. Morphine leads to delusions and disturbing emotions.

Ans: b. Hashish is responsible for thought perceptions and hallucinations.

Q6. Which of the following is the correct statement?

a. Cocaine is given to the patients after surgery and it helps stimulate recovery.

b. Barbiturates help in getting the truth out of criminals.

c. Morphine is given as pain killer to persons who are going through surgery.

d. Chewing tobacco lowers blood pressure and heart rate.

Ans: c. Morphine is given as pain killer to persons who are going through surgery.

Q7. Which layer is in contact with the brain tissue?

a. Pia mater

b. Arachnoid

c. Dura mater

d. Pia meter and Arachnoid

Ans: a. Pia meter

Q8. Which neuroglia cells produce myelin?

a. Satellite cells

b. Schwann cells

c. Both A and B

d. Neither A nor B

Ans: b. Schwann cells

Q9. Which of the following is not associated with the autonomic nervous system?

a. Peristalsis

b. Digestion

c. Excretion

d. Memory and learning

Ans: d. Memory and learning:

Q10. What is the function of the vagus nerve?

a. Initiation of heartbeat

b. Reduction of heartbeat

c. Acceleration of heartbeat

d. A constant heartbeat

Ans: b. Reduction of heartbeat

Conclusion

The neural system is an integral part of the human body that works in a synchronous function of the organs in the body of an individual. It works along with the endocrine system that integrates bodily functions. The neural system in general is responsible for the provision of a connection to various points in the organs that helps in effective and fast coordination. The human neural system functions within the parameters of the Central nervous system and the Peripheral neural system

FAQs

Q1. What are the nerve fibers present in the peripheral nervous system?

Ans. The nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system are of two types, one is afferent fibers and the other one is efferent fibers. The afferent nerve fibers helps in the transmission of impulses from organs to the CNS and the efferent nerves transmits signals from the CNS to particular organs.

Q2. What are the two categories of the peripheral nervous system?

Ans. The peripheral nervous system is subdivided into two categories, the somatic neural system and the automatic neural system. The somatic neural system relays impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles, and the autonomic neural system transmits impulses from CNS to involuntary organs.

Q3. How the synapses are formed?

Ans. The synapses are formed by the membranes of a pre-synaptic neuron also with the help of a post-synaptic neuron. These neurons do not need to be separated by a synaptic shaft. There are two distinct types of synapses, electrical synapses where pre and post-synaptic neurons are very close to each other, and chemical synapses.


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