Nervous System


Nervous System is nothing but a systematic collection of cells which is designed for the transmission of electrochemical inputs. Here, the organisms adjust their movements and orientations, and they react to the change in the external environment. It is seen that the human nervous system is classified into two main parts. They are Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System.

Information regarding Nervous System

Figure 1: Human Nervous System

The networks show the reactions in this region and it is the network of neurons and synapses. They help in the transmission of information from the brain and spinal cord to other portions of the body. The organisms can adjust their movements and orientations in reaction to changes in the external environment. It can stimulate the external environment in the form of an electrochemical message. It is mainly made up of the nerve fiber which contains neurons.

Parts of the Nervous System

The research regarding the Human Nervous System says that it includes the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system is also called CNS and it is divided into the brain and the spinal cord. Brain has the shape of a mushroom and it lies within the skull. The four main parts of the brain are:

  • Brain stem

  • Cerebrum

  • Cerebellum

  • Diencephalon

Figure 2: Neuron Anatomy

The spinal cord is a long tube-like structure and it extends from the brain. The CNS also consists of other parts like Neurons, Dendrites, Axon, and Myelin sheath. Neurons consist of axon, dendrites, and the cell body. Here, the axon is a long, thin process and it carries out impulses from the cell body to another neuron or tissue. The peripheral nervous system consists of two parts the somatic nervous system and the Autonomic nervous system.

The function of the Nervous System

Nervous System is an important organ of the human body and it’s the most essential part of body movements. There are different functions of the Nervous System and they are:

  • The nerves are built up of nerve fibre, which contains neurons.

  • Here, the mixed nerves have both sensory and motor neurons.

  • The afferent fibres of the sensory nerve are of long dendrites.

  • Motor nerves constitute the efferent fibres and it consist of long axons.

  • Fasciculus are the bundle of nerve fibres and it is surrounded by perineurium.

  • Perineurium have blood vessels and they are surrounded with connective tissue.

  • Epineurium is the connective tissue and they are the protective covering of the nerves.

Relation between the Brain and Spinal Cord to the Central Nervous System

  • Both the spinal cords and brain are the connected parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that assist in sending indications and it can execute several actions.

  • The brain is protected by the cranium and the spinal cord, which dispatches gestures from the back portion of the brain to execute separate movements for the CNS.

  • The conclusions can be communicated between the brain and spinal cords to assist in strengthening the exertions. The relationship between the parts can develop cooperation in the mortal body to serve different actions appropriately.

What does the Peripheral Nervous System do?

Figure 3: Peripheral Nervous System

Different branches of nerves are associated with the consistency of the spinal cord and the brain constructs elements of the PNS. In addition to this, PNS is a cooperative part that works with the brain and spinal cord to transmit the signals that are useful to operate the malfunctions of the brain in daily bases. Consequently, PNS is the support system of CNS to regulate malfunctions.

Functions of Peripheral Nervous System

PNS acts like an associated part of the human body that delivers support to the brain. The nervous system in the human body depends on both CNS and PNS to regulate the malfunctions. Hence, the followings are the functions played by the PNS:

  • Automatic actions: Different automatic actions like breathing and controlling heart rate are served by the PNS as part of the nervous system in the human body.

  • Voluntary movement: The voluntary movement in the human body is controlled by the PNS as its regular functions.

  • Learning and memorising: The process of learning and memorising are controlled by PNS as part of the nervous system in the human body.


Conclusively, the nervous system in the human body has a function in managing the human lifecycle development. Different movements functioned by the CNS and PNS assemble the human body acts naturally. Additionally, the brain operates as the storage system that also helps, CNS to recreate different actions. The brain and spinal cords are the primary parts of the nervous system that have different roles in controlling malfunctions.


Q1. What are PNS and CNS?

Ans. The two integrated parts that are associated with the nervous system are the CNS and PNS. Development of the activities that are known as malfunctions is operated by PNS and CNS.

Q2. What are the symptoms of nerve damage?

Ans. Different symptoms of nerve damage are visible in the human body. Weaknesses in the muscles and numbness in the hands and feet are the primary indications.

Q3. What are the most common diseases of the nervous system?

Ans. Alzheimer's simulates the functions of the brain and its consequences as the transformation in manners in remembrance. Cerebral palsy is comprehended as a disturbance that affects disturbances and creates imbalance in humans. Epilepsy is a disorder in the CNS that causes seizures.

Updated on: 25-Jan-2023


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