Nervous System Diseases


The basic unit of the nervous system is neurons that help to control various functions and movements of the body parts. Neurons are of various types including Motor neurons that allow the transmission of information from the brain to muscles and other vital organs of the body. Sensory neurons help to detect sound, light, taste, odour, heat sensation, and pressure and then send the messages to the brain. Some disorders of the nervous system include infections such as polio, meningitis, encephalitis, and epidural abscess.

What is the Nervous System?

Nervous system consists of two major parts including the Central nervous system (CNS) and the Peripheral nervous system. CNS consists of 2 major parts brain and spinal cord. The brain is composed of various networks of communicating Glia and neurons. The Peripheral nervous system, consists of neutral elements like the autonomic nerves and peripheral nerves.

Figure 1: Divisions of Nervous system

The Nervous system controls all involuntary processes which include managing the rate of heartbeat, and releasing hormones like adrenaline. It also allows the pupils to open and respond to light and helps in regulating the digestive system. In this system, other vital organs that play vital roles are the eyes, ears, tongue, and Sensory receptors located in skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body

Functions of the Nervous System

The Nervous system has various effective functions as mentioned below:

  • Nervous system helps to control and regulate body temperature, in order to maintain homeostasis.

  • The system comprises a vast network of nerves that sends signals to glands, muscles, and living cells of the entire body. The information is mainly collected from the brain and transmitted to other organs through nerves.

  • A complex system acts as the command centre of the human body. It controls major body processes or systems including digestion, sexual development or puberty.

Symptoms of the Nervous System Disorders

Nervous system is vulnerable to several diseases and can get damaged by trauma, bacterial or viral infections, tumours, degeneration, structural defects, Blood flow disruption, and Autoimmune disorders.

The general signs and symptoms of nervous system disorders that individuals can experience are mentioned below:

  • Sudden onset of a headache or Persistent headache

  • Loss of tingling or feeling

  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength.

  • Loss of memory

  • Rigidity of muscles

  • Lack of coordination

  • Loss of sight or double vision

  • Impaired mental ability.

  • Slurred speech and Muscle wasting

  • Impairment of expression or comprehension

  • Back pain radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts or vital organs of the body

  • Seizures of tumours.

Diseases of the Nervous System

Various diseases affect the functions of the nervous system by reducing brain functions. The common nervous system diseases are mentioned below.

Figure 2: Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer's disease: This disease is the kind of dementia that affects the individual thoughts, memory and behaviour and is more common in older people. In this case proteins and chemicals build up in the brain that affects mood, personality, speech, and body movement over time. The symptoms of this disease include vagueness in conversation, unpredictable emotions, reduction in social skills, and memory loss.

Cerebral palsy: This disease is the condition in which the movement of an individual is affected due to a brain haemorrhage or injury. Due to this the body posture, muscle tone and coordination get affected and worsen over time. Brain damage is permanent and causes disorders like impaired vision, hearing, and difficulty in speaking.

Figure 3: Major Diseases of Nervous system

Motor neurone disease (MND): This disease gradually affects the motor neurons or motor nerves. As the neurons damage and die slowly muscle becomes weak and makes the patient paralyzed. MND is also determined as Lou Gehrig's disease, or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The symptoms of this disease are slurred speech, weakness in limbs, hands and legs, cramps, and muscles twitching.

Treatment of the Nervous System diseases

Nervous system can get damaged due to various reasons that can gradually affect body functions, muscles, bones and limb movement. Damaged nerves experience trouble in sending messages to different parts of the body. The common disorders of the nervous system include Cerebral palsy, Motor neurone disease, Alzheimer's disease, Neurofibromatosis, and Multiple sclerosis.

These diseases can be treated through medication and injections. Other treatments include spinal surgery, Spinal cord stimulation, and physiotherapy after stroke or brain injury. Regular exercises, 8 hours of sleep, less stressful work, and consumption of cruciferous vegetables. Less consumption of life-threatening drugs, alcohol, and tobacco can also prevent nervous system diseases.


The nervous system acts as the command centre of the body whose basic unit is a neuron or nerve cells. Injured neurons trouble body movement, metabolism, and blood circulation and affect the senses, thoughts and speech of the individuals. This specific network allows the parts of the brain to sense, talk with others, and control other body functions like thinking, emotions, behaviour, and movement. The disorders of the nervous system include Motor neurone disease, Bell's palsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Neurofibromatosis, and Cerebral palsy.


Q1. What are the major diseases in nerves?

Ans. The disorders of the nervous system include Motor neurone disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Cerebral palsy. Other disorders include vascular disorders like stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack.

Q2. What are the treatments for Nervous System disorders?

Ans. The treatments of nervous system disorders include various medications. Other than medicines regular exercise, less consumption of tobacco and alcohol, healthy diets, and 8 hours of sleep can control or prevent diseases of the nervous system.

Q3. How does the nervous system influence every aspect of human health?

Ans. The nervous system affects various aspects of human health. These include body balance movements, coordination, thoughts, memory, learning, and feelings. It also affects the digestive system, puberty, heartbeat and breathing patterns and sensory organs.

Updated on: 25-Jan-2023


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