MS SQL Server - Overview


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This chapter introduces SQL Server, discusses its usage, advantages, versions, and components.

What is SQL Server?

  • It is a software, developed by Microsoft, which is implemented from the specification of RDBMS.

  • It is also an ORDBMS.

  • It is platform dependent.

  • It is both GUI and command based software.

  • It supports SQL (SEQUEL) language which is an IBM product, non-procedural, common database and case insensitive language.

Usage of SQL Server

  • To create databases.
  • To maintain databases.
  • To analyze the data through SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS).
  • To generate reports through SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS).
  • To carry out ETL operations through SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS).

Versions of SQL Server

Version Year Code Name
6.0 1995 SQL95
6.5 1996 Hydra
7.0 1998 Sphinx
8.0 (2000) 2000 Shiloh
9.0 (2005) 2005 Yukon
10.0 (2008) 2008 Katmai
10.5 (2008 R2) 2010 Kilimanjaro
11.0 (2012) 2012 Denali
12 (2014) 2014 Hekaton (initially), SQL 14 (current)

SQL Server Components

SQL Server works in client-server architecture, hence it supports two types of components − (a) Workstation and (b) Server.

  • Workstation components are installed in every device/SQL Server operator’s machine. These are just interfaces to interact with Server components. Example: SSMS, SSCM, Profiler, BIDS, SQLEM etc.

  • Server components are installed in centralized server. These are services. Example: SQL Server, SQL Server Agent, SSIS, SSAS, SSRS, SQL browser, SQL Server full text search etc.

Instance of SQL Server

  • An instance is an installation of SQL Server.
  • An instance is an exact copy of the same software.
  • If we install 'n' times, then 'n' instances will be created.
  • There are two types of instances in SQL Server a) Default b) Named.
  • Only one default instance will be supported in one Server.
  • Multiple named instances will be supported in one Server.
  • Default instance will take the server name as Instance name.
  • Default instance service name is MSSQLSERVER.
  • 16 instances will be supported in 2000 version.
  • 50 instances will supported in 2005 and later versions.

Advantages of Instances

  • To install different versions in one machine.
  • To reduce cost.
  • To maintain production, development, and test environments separately.
  • To reduce temporary database problems.
  • To separate security privileges.
  • To maintain standby server.


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