Lifestyle Disease: Meaning & Types

Everyone must have heard of people who have had a heart attack in the past and need to limit their diet. Blood pressure problems are very common in India and have been on the rise. Everyone knows at least one person who suffers from fluctuations in blood pressure. Has anyone noticed which factors could have led to these diseases and for how many years those changes have accumulated that caused a sudden heart attack or any other coronary disease?

What are Lifestyle Diseases?

Lifestyle Diseases or Non-communicable diseases cannot be transferred from one person to another, primarily caused by the lifestyle one leads. These are chronic, which means once a person has them, they cannot last a lifetime and need constant checkups and regulation

Lifestyle Diseases in India

The number one lifestyle disease in India is that Experts claim that this sickness is spreading rapidly across the nation, particularly in urban areas. It increased from a controlled 2% in the 1970s to more than 15% in 2020. The statistics are much more concerning in metropolitan areas, where 35 to 40% of the population has diabetes. Another common lifestyle issue that can even harm children is obesity. It was shown that the number of obese people in India doubled between 1955 and 2015. Studies revealed that women were more likely to get the condition. We can only anticipate an increase in obesity as sedentary behavior becomes the norm rather than the exception. It appears that hypertension is common. Particularly in the eastern and northern regions of India, hypertension seems to be a widespread condition.

Compared to rural dwellers, males, like urban individuals, appear at a higher risk for this disease. Significant amounts of stress are a factor in this illness. Women are more likely than men to have COPD, and the risk is highest for them between the ages of 36 and 50, when it is around 1.3 times higher than for males. Another illness that can develop because of environmental exposure is this one. Another prevalent lifestyle illness in India is arteriosclerosis, the thickening of the arterial blood vessel walls. This illness frequently co-occurs with diabetes, high blood pressure, and an unbalanced weight. Cardiac conditions brought on by heart muscle injury. Many Indians also suffer from cardiac conditions caused by injury to the heart muscle or blood vessels. These issues may also be correlated with inactivity, smoking, excessive cholesterol, and diabetes. According to reports, this factor accounts for 26% of deaths nationwide. Cancer is one of the illnesses that are not frequently considered to be a disease of lifestyle. However, regular exposure to numerous cosmetics and home items may increase cancer risk. 20% of the time, exposure to environmental pollutants is the cause of the condition. The prevalence of mental health disorders has increased, particularly during and after COVID, due to a lack of social interactions and spending all day indoors.

Major Lifestyle Diseases

There are some major lifestyle or non-communicable diseases that are more prevalent than other diseases. These diseases are

Cardiovascular Diseases

Coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease, and other illnesses are among the category of heart and blood vessel disorders known as CVDs. Heart attacks and strokes account for more than four of every five CVD deaths. Unhealthy eating, inactivity, usage of tobacco products, and abuse of alcohol are the main behavioral risk factors for heart disease and stroke. Individuals may experience elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, elevated blood lipids, and even overweight and obesity because of behavioral risk factors. In primary care settings, these "intermediate risk factors" can be assessed and show a higher risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart failure.


Diabetes is a chronic condition brought on by either insufficient insulin production by the pancreas or inefficient insulin utilization by the body. A hormone called insulin controls blood sugar levels. Uncontrolled diabetes frequently causes hyperglycemia, also known as high blood glucose or raised blood sugar. Over time can seriously harm many different bodily systems, including the neurons and blood vessels. The body's inefficient use of insulin causes type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset. This diabetes is primarily brought on by increased body weight and inactivity. Deficient insulin production is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes, sometimes referred to as insulin-dependent, juvenile, or childhood-onset, necessitating daily insulin therapy.


Cancer is a condition that occurs when a few of the body's cells grow out of control and spread to other bodily regions. Occasionally, this systematic process fails, causing damaged or aberrant cells to proliferate when they should not. Tumors, which are tissue masses, can develop from these cells. Tumors may or may not be malignant. Cancerous tumors can move to distant body parts to produce new tumors, invade neighboring tissues, or do both. Malignant tumors are another name for cancerous tumors. Malignancies of the blood, including leukemias, seldom develop solid tumors, although many other cancers do.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRDs)

CRDs impact the lungs' airways and other pulmonary structures. The most prevalent ones include pulmonary hypertension, asthma, occupational lung disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air pollution, exposure to chemicals and dust at work, and recurrent lower respiratory infections in children are other risk factors besides tobacco smoke. Although CRDs cannot be cured, several treatments can help expand the airways and reduce shortness of breath, which can help regulate symptoms and enhance everyday life for those with these conditions.

Characteristics of NCDs

It includes

Complex etiology (causes)

Noncommunicable illnesses are caused by unrelated factors such as unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, and aging population. Apparent reasons such as high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and obesity may be manifestations of underlying lifestyle choices

Multiple risk factors

Various risk factors contribute to the beginning and progression of NCDs. The many hazards may be classified into three groups: modifiable behavioral risk factors, non-modifiable risk factors, and metabolic risk factors, many of which are shared by various illnesses.

Protracted latency time

The latency period of NCDs is often long, ranging from many years to several decades. Non-contagious origin (non-communicable): Because NCDs are not transmitted from person to person, it is a foregone conclusion that these illnesses arise in a person from non-contagious origins.

The protracted course of the disease

Because NCDs are chronic, the course of sickness is frequently prolonged and takes years before a patient is obliged to seek medical treatment or intervention. NCDs frequently cause functional impairment or disability, making it difficult for patients to live normally. Patients suffering from chronic NCDs may be unable to engage in regular physical activity, go to work, or eat normally.


Lifestyle diseases, or non-communicable diseases, are those diseases that are contagious and cannot be transferred through air or water. These are mostly caused by poor lifestyles and habits and are only manageable, not curable, once contacted. In India, most of these diseases are common, but recent lifestyle changes have made them common even among the younger population due to poor living conditions. Major lifestyle diseases include cardiovascular heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases. These diseases cause a huge burden on the country's healthcare sector, and certain preventions should be taken at a large scale to bring the numbers down