How are Artificial Neural Networks used in Machine Learning?


Introduction

Machine learning models called artificial neural networks (ANNs) are modelled after the structure and operation of biological neurons in the brain. ANNs are a powerful machine learning technique that may be used to address a variety of issues in numerous domains. Applications for ANNs include object detection, anomaly detection, generative modelling, reinforcement learning, financial modelling, natural language processing, speech recognition, object recognition, and recommendation systems. We will look at some of the applications of ANNs in machine learning in this article.

Artificial Neural Networks used in Machine Learning

What is an Artificial Neural Network?

A group of connected nodes, or neurons, called an artificial neural network processes and transmits information. Each neuron receives information from other neurons or outside sources, processes it using a mathematical function, and then sends the outcome to other neurons or an external system. The strength of the signal communicated between neurons is determined by weights on the connections between them, and these weights change as learning takes place.

The human brain, which is made up of billions of interconnected neurons, serves as the inspiration for ANNs. The strength of the signal that neurons transmit across the brain's synapses is altered by experience. Like this, during the training phase of an ANN, the connections between neurons are altered depending on the input data.

How Are ANNs Used in Machine Learning?

Many machine learning applications, such as image identification, audio recognition, natural language processing, and predictive analytics, use artificial neural networks. Large datasets are utilised to train artificial neural networks (ANNs) in all of these applications, which are then used to change the connections between neurons to increase prediction or classification accuracy.

some of the essential elements of artificial neural networks and how they are used in applications for machine learning are followed as −

Neurons

Neurons are the fundamental building pieces of an artificial neural network, as was previously established. The network's neurons are linked together by synapses, which are connections between neurons. The strength with which a neuron will influence the neurons it is attached to is determined by the weight of the synapses.

A neuron's input is the balanced total of inputs from other neurons and outside sources of information. The output of the neuron is then decided by passing this input via an activation function. The activation function, which is typically nonlinear, enables the network to model intricate connections between inputs and outputs.

Layers

The neurons in a neural network are arranged in layers. The input layer, which is the top layer, takes data input from an outside source. One or more hidden layers process the input and extract pertinent features after processing the output from the input layer. The output layer subsequently creates the network's final output using the data from the hidden levels.

Training

A set of training examples is used to change a neural network's connections between neurons. Inputs are supplied into the network during training, and the results are evaluated with the predicted results. The weights of the connections between neurons are changed based on the variance between the output that was produced and the output that was anticipated. Iteratively repeating this process until the network generates the desired output for the supplied input.

Usages

Image Recognition

One of the most often used ANN applications is image recognition. By analysing an image's pixels and spotting patterns and features, ANNs can be trained to recognise images. For example, by examining the placement and configuration of facial characteristics like the eyes, nose, and mouth, an ANN might be trained to recognise faces. Properly taught, ANNs are highly accurate at recognising faces in fresh photographs.

Speech Recognition

The area where ANNs are widely employed is speech recognition. Analyzing the frequency and amplitude of sound waves enables ANNs to be trained to recognise spoken words. The ANN processes this data and finds patterns in the sound waves that match to phrases. Once trained, ANNs have a high degree of accuracy in recognizing spoken words, which makes them helpful in applications like virtual assistants and speech-to-text transcription.

Natural Language Processing

Another application for ANNs is in natural language processing (NLP). By analyzing phrase structure and context, ANNs can be trained to comprehend natural language. This is accomplished by providing the ANN with a huge amount of text input, which is then utilised to alter the connections between neurons to increase prediction accuracy. After being trained, ANNs can be utilised for chatbot dialogues, machine translation, and sentiment analysis.

Predictive Analytics

Predictive analytics is another significant application where ANNs are frequently used. ANNs can be used to predict future outcomes based on historical data. An ANN can be taught to estimate stock prices by looking at prior pricing data and identifying patterns that indicate future price changes, for example. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to predict a range of phenomena, including weather patterns, consumer behaviour, and disease outbreaks, once they have been trained.

Financial Modeling

ANNs are also utilised in financial modelling applications including risk analysis and stock price forecasting. For instance, ANNs can be used to identify trends in past stock price movements and forecast future price changes. They can also be used to assess borrowers' creditworthiness based on previous financial information.

Conclusion

In conclusion, artificial neural networks are a flexible and effective machine learning technology that can be utilised to address a variety of issues in a variety of fields. Machine learning practitioners can create more useful models and utilise this potent technology more effectively by understanding the ANNs' principles and applications. From computer vision to speech recognition to financial modelling, ANNs have made tremendous advancements possible. This field of research and development is still quite active. ANNs are going to play an increasingly significant role in determining the future of machine learning as this field develops and grows.

Updated on: 28-Mar-2023

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