Data Communication Terminologies

Different languages are used by different people based on the place they are located. language is used for communication purposes. Nowadays technology is improved a lot, communication became easy even though the distance between people is huge. People in one place may communicate easily with people who are in the other place using different technologies like messages, mobiles, etc. Distance is not a matter of communication. Data Communication is transmitting data between two nodes or computers by using communication channels. The efficiency of communication completely depends on some of the basic features of the system or network.



Sender has sent the message through a channel and it should be reached the correct destination. If the message is delivered to the correct destination, it talks about the communication channel efficiency.


The message which is sent by the sender should be accurate or correct, it should consist of the destination and source address properly and the content also should be clear.


The packet or data which is sent by the sender should be delivered to the destination without any delay. If there is any delay it means there is traffic in the channel or there may be a chance of packet loss. So, the packet should be delivered to the destination within the timeline.


There might be a delay that exists sometimes because of many reasons between sender and receiver, but if the delay is uneven then we can say jitter. Arriving time of the packet is varying from one to another unevenly.

Data Presentation

When the sender wants to send the message to the receiver, the data or information in the message should be clear and correct. The data may be of any form either audio or video, it should be presented in such a manner the receiver should understand the message well.


While sending the data through packets over the network, the data is converted into bits(0’s and 1’s representation), we convert the letters into bits by following the Unicode representation also called ASCII representation. Before sending the packet to the channel the data conversion should happen.


If the data contains numbers, the numbers also should be converted into bits.

Here the conversion of numbers to bit representation with the help of basic mathematical operations.


Every image is represented in the form of pixels, but in the data communication even images are also converted into bit patterns, this is done by image pixels represented in the form of matrix representation in the form of dots.


It consists of music, and sounds that represent the data in a continuous format.


It consists of sounds, images, and even text but there is continuous movement.

Before transmitting the data between the sender and receiver have aware of the following terminology.

  • Data Channel

    The data channel is very important while communicating between sender and receiver because it only carries the data from one end to the other ends. There might be the existence of several channels between the nodes, the packet can be transmitted to any channel also based on the configuration and traffic flow.

    Some protocols have to use by data channels.

    TCP: connection-oriented protocol, UDP: connection-less protocol, and DTLS.

  • Baud

    The data transfer speed can be measured using bauds only represented in the form of bps.

  • Bits per second

    This is also another way of representing the speed of transmission of a data packet. It is calculated based on how many bits can travel per second through a channel between the sender and receiver. There are many ways to represent speed like kilobits per second(kbps), KiloBytes per second(KBPs), etc.

  • Bandwidth

    Bandwidth is one measurement that measures within a time how much data is transmitted between two nodes through a transmission medium. Bandwidth talks about the frequency range. Usually, the frequency units are hertz(‘the number of cycles per second’).

  • Data Transfer Rate

    Data transfer rate also talks about the speed. It calculates the speed rate while traveling between two ends. This is also represented in bits per second(bps) or bytes per second(Bps), 1 bps means within a second how many bits travel from one end to another end.

  • Throughput

    Throughput calculates the network efficiency, by measuring data transfer between the source and destination over the network. Through which can calculate the capability and speed of the network.


While using the data transmission technique to send the data between source and destination, have aware of the terminology those are helpful to understand the speed or to measure the error rate or delay of the packets. Understanding channels and units of measurement will help to better understand how internally happens. What more require for improvisation such things can be known easily.

Updated on: 11-Apr-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started