C++ Program to Implement B Tree

C++Server Side ProgrammingProgramming

The B-tree is a generalization of a binary search tree in that a node can have more than two children. It is basically a self-balancing tree data structure that maintains sorted data and allows sequential access, searches, insertions, and deletions in logarithmic time.

Here is a C++ program to implement B tree of order 6.

Algorithm

Begin
   function insert() to insert the nodes into the tree:
      Initialize x as root.
   if x is leaf and having space for one more info then insert a to x.
   else if x is not leaf, do
      Find the child of x that is going to be traversed next.
      If the child is not full, change x to point to the child.
      If the child is full, split it and change x to point to one of the two parts of the child. If a is smaller
      than mid key in the child, then set x as first part of the child. Else second part of the child. When split    the child, move a key from the child to its parent x.
End

Example Code

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
struct BTree//node declaration {
   int *d;
   BTree **child_ptr;
   bool l;
   int n;
}*r = NULL, *np = NULL, *x = NULL;

BTree* init()//creation of node {
   int i;
   np = new BTree;
   np->d = new int[6];//order 6
   np->child_ptr = new BTree *[7];
   np->l = true;
   np->n = 0;
   for (i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
      np->child_ptr[i] = NULL;
   }
   return np;
}

void traverse(BTree *p)//traverse the tree {
   cout<<endl;
   int i;
   for (i = 0; i < p->n; i++) {
      if (p->l == false) {
         traverse(p->child_ptr[i]);
      }
      cout << " " << p->d[i];
   }
   if (p->l == false) {
      traverse(p->child_ptr[i]);
   }
   cout<<endl;
}

void sort(int *p, int n)//sort the tree {
   int i, j, t;
   for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (j = i; j <= n; j++) {
         if (p[i] >p[j]) {
            t = p[i];
            p[i] = p[j];
            p[j] = t;
         }
      }
   }
}

int split_child(BTree *x, int i) {
   int j, mid;
   BTree *np1, *np3, *y;
   np3 = init();//create new node
   np3->l = true;
   if (i == -1) {
      mid = x->d[2];//find mid
      x->d[2] = 0;
      x->n--;
      np1 = init();
      np1->l= false;
      x->l= true;
      for (j = 3; j < 6; j++) {
         np3->d[j - 3] = x->d[j];
         np3->child_ptr[j - 3] = x->child_ptr[j];
         np3->n++;
         x->d[j] = 0;
         x->n--;
      }
      for (j = 0; j < 6; j++) {
         x->child_ptr[j] = NULL;
      }
      np1->d[0] = mid;
      np1->child_ptr[np1->n] = x;
      np1->child_ptr[np1->n + 1] = np3;
      np1->n++;
      r = np1;
   } else {
      y = x->child_ptr[i];
      mid = y->d[2];
      y->d[2] = 0;
      y->n--;
      for (j = 3; j <6 ; j++) {
         np3->d[j - 3] = y->d[j];
         np3->n++;
         y->d[j] = 0;
         y->n--;
      }
      x->child_ptr[i + 1] = y;
      x->child_ptr[i + 1] = np3;
   }
   return mid;
}

void insert(int a) {
   int i, t;
   x = r;
   if (x == NULL) {
      r = init();
      x = r;
   } else {
      if (x->l== true && x->n == 6) {
         t = split_child(x, -1);
         x = r;
         for (i = 0; i < (x->n); i++) {
            if ((a >x->d[i]) && (a < x->d[i + 1])) {
               i++;
               break;
            } else if (a < x->d[0]) {
               break;
            } else {
               continue;
            }
         }
         x = x->child_ptr[i];
      } else {
         while (x->l == false) {
            for (i = 0; i < (x->n); i++) {
               if ((a >x->d[i]) && (a < x->d[i + 1])) {
                  i++;
                  break;
               } else if (a < x->d[0]) {
                  break;
               } else {
                  continue;
               }
            }
            if ((x->child_ptr[i])->n == 6) {
               t = split_child(x, i);
               x->d[x->n] = t;
               x->n++;
               continue;
            } else {
               x = x->child_ptr[i];
            }
         }
      }
   }
   x->d[x->n] = a;
   sort(x->d, x->n);
   x->n++;
}

int main() {
   int i, n, t;
   cout<<"enter the no of elements to be inserted\n";
   cin>>n;
   for(i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      cout<<"enter the element\n";
      cin>>t;
      insert(t);
   }
   cout<<"traversal of constructed B tree\n";
   traverse(r);
}

Output

enter the no of elements to be inserted
7
enter the element
10
enter the element
20
enter the element
30
enter the element
40
enter the element
50
enter the element
60
enter the element
70
traversal of constructed B tree
10 20
30
40 50 60 70
raja
Published on 04-Apr-2019 12:16:31
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