Composition of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha: Understanding the Indian Parliament


Introduction

The Indian parliament consists of Loksabha, Rajyasabha, and Rastrapati [President of India]. In Indian democracy, both Loksabha and Rajyaabha have great importance. This is why related to polity and democracy, usually, competitive examinations ask about the Composition of Loksabha and Rajyasabha.

If you are preparing for competitive examinations, and want to increase your knowledge about the Composition of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, then please read this article entirely for your own benefit.

So, let's start-

Composition of Loksabha

We have listed the elements of the composition of Loksabha below-

Total Number of Members

The Lok Sabha has a total of 545 members. Of these, 543 members are elected from the states and union territories, while two members are nominated by the President of India from the Anglo-Indian community.

Allocation of Seats

The allocation of seats in the Lok Sabha is based on the principle of proportional representation. The number of seats allocated to each state is determined by its population. This means that states with a larger population have more seats, while states with a smaller population have fewer seats.

Reservation of Seats

The Constitution of India provides for the reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in the Lok Sabha. Currently, 84 seats are reserved for SCs and 47 seats are reserved for STs.

Term of Office

The term of office of members of the Lok Sabha is five years, unless dissolved earlier by the President of India. However, the Lok Sabha can be dissolved earlier by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Qualifications

To be eligible to contest for the Lok Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India, at least 25 years of age, and not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any state government.

Election Process

Members of the Lok Sabha are elected through a system of direct elections. The elections are held in every five years, or whenever the Lok Sabha is dissolved earlier by the President of India.

Speaker and Deputy Speaker

The Lok Sabha elects a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members. The Speaker presides over the proceedings of the Lok Sabha and maintains order in the House.

Powers and Functions

The Lok Sabha has several powers and functions, including making laws on matters within the Union List, approving the budget, and holding the government accountable through various mechanisms such as Question Hour, Zero Hour, and the Motion of No Confidence.

Composition of Rajyasabha

We have listed the elements of the composition of Rajyasabha below-

Total Number of Members

The Rajya Sabha, also known as the upper house of the Indian Parliament, has a total of 245 members. Of these, 233 members are elected from the states and union territories, while 12 members are nominated by the President of India.

Allocation of Seats

The allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha is based on the principle of indirect election. The members are elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly of each state, using a system of proportional representation.

Term of Office

The term of office of members of the Rajya Sabha is six years. However, one-third of the members retire every two years, ensuring continuity and stability in the functioning of the House.

Qualifications

To be eligible to contest for the Rajya Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India, at least 30 years of age, and not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any state government.

Election Process

Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly of each state using the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system. This system ensures that the members are elected in a proportional manner, based on the votes received by each candidate.

Representation of States and Union Territories

The Rajya Sabha ensures that each state and union territory is represented fairly. Each state is allotted a fixed number of seats based on its population, while each union territory is allotted one seat.

Powers and Functions

The Rajya Sabha has several powers and functions, including acting as a check on the Lok Sabha by reviewing and amending bills passed by the Lok Sabha. It also has the power to initiate bills on matters within the Concurrent List, approve the budget, and hold the government accountable through various mechanisms such as Question Hour, Zero Hour, and the Motion of No Confidence.

Chairperson

The Rajya Sabha elects a Chairperson, also known as the Vice President of India, who presides over the proceedings of the House and maintains order.

FAQ's

Q1. How does the composition of the Lok Sabha differ from the Rajya Sabha?

Ans: In this case, Lok Sabha represents the people of India directly, while Rajya Sabha usually represents states and union territories indirectly.

Q2. How is the number of seats in the Lok Sabha determined for each state?

Ans: The number of seats in Lok Sabha is based on population, while Rajya Sabha has a fixed number of seats for each state.

Q3. How does the composition of the Rajya Sabha reflect the federal character of the Indian political system?

Ans: Rajya Sabha reflects federal character by representing states and union territories.

Q4. How does the anti-defection law affect the composition of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

Ans: Anti-defection law prevents elected representatives from changing parties, affecting the composition of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Q5. What is the significance of the quorum requirement in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

Ans: Quorum requirement ensures a minimum number of members present to conduct business in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Updated on: 05-May-2023

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