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House of People: Meaning and Composition
The Indian Parliament is bicameral, which means it contains two houses. One of the two houses is the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha is the other house. The Lok Sabha is the first house of the parliament and represents the whole Indian population. Lok Sabha members are elected through universal adult suffrage. The Lok Sabha is made up of 550 elected members, including the Prime Minister of India and two members chosen by the Indian President.
The Lok Sabha is India's most well-known legislative chamber. Following the first general elections, which were held from October 25 to February 21, 1952, the Lok Sabha (House of People) was created for the first time on April 17, 1952.
The Lok Sabha is the Parliament's lower chamber. It is referred to as the "House of the People." Members of the Lok Sabha are chosen by voting, in which all people over the age of 18 can vote for their preferred candidate. Members represent their respective constituencies. They can serve for a maximum of five years or until the president dissolves the body. Only on the suggestion of ministers may the President dissolve the House. The Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi host the house's meetings.
The current Lok Sabha term began in May and is currently in effect. The Lok Sabha currently has 543 seats. Representatives can serve for a maximum of five years from the first meeting or until the organization is dissolved. The length of the Lok Sabha can be extended by statute in an emergency.
Lok Sabha Election
Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected or appointed from states, union territories, or a certain field of competence. Lok Sabha elections are held every five years under the guise of general elections. The Indian Constitution established the universal adult franchise as the foundation for elections to the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies.
State Representation in the Lok Sabha
Members are directly chosen by the people from the states' territorial constituencies.
The Universal Adult Franchise was utilized as an election principle.
Any Indian citizen over the age of 18 is eligible to vote.
Union Territories' Lok Sabha Representation
Parliament has the authority to choose representatives from the UTs in any way it sees fit.
The election principle used was direct election.
Nominated Members' Representation in the Lok Sabha
If the Anglo-Indian community is underrepresented, the president nominates two members.
Lok Sabha Composition
The Lok Sabha is India's lower chamber of the bicameral parliament, together with the upper house, the Rajya Sabha. However, the number of members of parliament is restricted, with just 543 Lok Sabha seats available. Aside from that, a few years ago, in the year 1950, 500 seats were available in India's Lok Sabha, which has since been enlarged. Furthermore, some seats are reserved in Lok Sabha for the members of the Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribes. As per the order issued by the Delimitation Commission in 2008, 412 are general, 84 seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes and 47 seats for the Scheduled Tribes. Earlier it was 79 and 41 for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.
The majority of Lok Sabha members are referred to as MPs, which stands for "Member of Parliament." However, the people of India elect their members of parliament through universal suffrage in several seats. In addition to this, the President of India appoints two members based on the suggestion of the Indian government. In this scenario, those people are crucial for having a productive debate, and most of the time, the members are separated into different sorts of teams. As a result, argument frequently occurs during debate, and the speaker of parliament is responsible for maintaining the climate in Lok Sabha.
The current Lok Sabha composition: at the moment, the speaker of the Lok Sabha is Shri Om Birla, who is touring the Parliament House Complex on January 28th, 2022. Aside from that, the current number of members in the parliament is 543, a drop from previous days, and it is the maximum number of seats for Lok Sabha members. As the speaker of the Lok Sabha stated, there is now a discussion, and the government of India has decided to answer the demands of the people.
Power of the Lok Sabha
The power of the Lok Sabha is divided into four types −
Regular bills can become laws if they have received the approval of both Houses of Parliament.
Although common legislation can be introduced in any body of Parliament, the Lok Sabha receives more than 90% of the introductions.
If the Rajya Sabha rejects legislation enacted by the Lok Sabha and returns it with or without revisions, the Lok Sabha must review the bill. If the Lok Sabha passes it again but the Rajya Sabha is still hesitant to accept it, an impasse emerges. If the deadlock is not broken after six months, the President convenes a joint assembly of the two Houses in accordance with the norms of Article 108.
The combined sitting's conclusion is recognized by both houses
Under Article 75, the Council of Ministers has equal responsibility before the Lok Sabha (3). The Prime Minister is chosen by the majority in the Lok Sabha.
The ministers will continue in their positions as long as the majority in the Lok Sabha believes in them. The Council of Ministers is still subject to Lok Sabha oversight.
Ministers can be questioned by MPs on the administration's policies and activities. Article 75 of the Indian Constitution grants the freedom to inquire.
MPs in the lower house have the ability to introduce and vote on a variety of resolutions and motions, including requests for adjournment, attention, censure, and no-confidence measures.
The Lok Sabha has broad fiscal powers. A money bill may be submitted in the Lok Sabha only in compliance with the provisions of Article 109. After being passed by the Lok Sabha, the money bill is sent to the Rajya Sabha.
In the case of a disagreement, the Lok Sabha Speaker decides whether a certain law qualifies as a money bill or not. His decision is definitive; it cannot be overturned in court, the Lok Sabha, or the Rajya Sabha.
As a result, we can claim unequivocally that the Lok Sabha has supreme control over the state's finances. Without the approval of the Lok Sabha, no tax may be levied, collected, amended, or repealed.
The administration cannot pursue its budgetary policies without the assent of the Lok Sabha.
The Lok Sabha also investigates the allegations submitted by the Rajya Sabha against India's Vice President.
According to Article 124(4), the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha can vote jointly to dismiss any Supreme Court or State High Court judge.
Both Houses may approve a special address together and send it to the President for the expulsion of select high-ranking state officials, such as the Attorney General, the Chief Election Commissioner, and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
The Lok Sabha can also take action against any member or citizen who is found to be in contempt of the House.
Any member or citizen found in violation of the House's norms may be punished by the Lok Sabha.
Article 81 − deals with the composition of the Lok Sabha.
Article 84 − of the Indian Constitution states the requirements necessary to become a member of parliament. The requirements are as follows:
He or she must be an Indian national.
He/she must be at least 30 years old to serve in the Upper House (Rajya Sabha), and at least 25 years old to serve in the Lower House (Lok Sabha).
He/she must also fulfil additional legal requirements established by the Indian Parliament.
Article 85 − of the Indian Constitution, the President of India has the ability to dissolve the Lok Sabha. dian Constitution, the President of India has the ability to dissolve the Lok Sabha.
Articles 94 and 96 − a speaker can be dismissed by a motion passed with an effective majority, i.e., more than half of the members of the house.
He or she can also be dismissed under the Representation of the People Act or when the Speaker certifies a measure improperly as a money bill.
Article 331 of Constitution allows for representation of the Anglo-Indian community. It specifies that if the President considers that the Anglo-Indian community is underrepresented in the House of People, he may nominate no more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to the House of People.
According to the Constitution, the Indian Parliament is organized into three sections: the House of People, the Council of States, and the President. Despite the ups and downs of Indian politics, the Lok Sabha has remained a beacon of political and social ideals as well as a melting pot of cultural diversity. With the Rajya Sabha, it reflects India's independent, socialist, secular, and democratic republic.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. When the Lok Sabha was first established?
Ans. The Lok Sabha was established for the first time on April 17, 1952, following the first general elections, which were held from October 25, 1951, to February 21, 1952.
Q2. What is the 95th Amendment Act of 2009?
Ans. The 95th Amendment Act of 2009 extended for another ten years, until 2020, the reservation of seats for SCs and STs, as well as special representation for Anglo-Indians, in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies. (See also Article 334).
Q3. Why is the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha?
Ans. The Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha since it has a larger membership. Furthermore, once the Lok Sabha has accepted a monetary measure, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. Money bills cannot be introduced, amended, or rejected in the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha has more financial authority. The Rajya Sabha cannot reject any financial law or the government's budget that has been passed by the Lok Sabha.
Q4. Who has the power of Lok Sabha?
Ans. The Indian Parliament is made up of the President and two Houses: Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (Local Government) (House of the People). The President can call and prorogue either House of Parliament, as well as dissolve Lok Sabha. The Indian Constitution went into effect on January 26, 1950.
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