Comparison of Arc, Laser and Hybrid Welding Processes

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Arc Welding

A welding process in which an electric arc is used to produce heat to melt and join the metals is known as arc welding. In the arc welding, an AC or DC welding power supply is used to create the electric arc between a consumable or non-consumable electrode and the base material.

Laser Welding

The welding process in which a laser beam is used as the source of energy to melt the materials being joined is known as laser welding. It is a high energy density beam process, and can be used to join thick materials with deep and narrow weld.

Hybrid Welding

When the welding process is performed by the simultaneous used of arc welding (such as TIG welding, MIG welding, etc.) and the laser welding, then the welding process is said to be hybrid welding. Hybrid welding is also known as hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW).

The hybrid welding is an effective welding process of achieving higher gap management tolerance, deeper penetration, lower heat input, improved welding speed and quality and reduced cost, etc.

Comparison of Arc, Laser and Hybrid Welding Processes

The following table compares and contrasts the various features of arc welding, laser welding, and hybrid welding processes.

FactorArc WeldingLaser WeldingHybrid Welding
Fusion ZoneArc welding has wide fusion zone.Laser welding has narrow fusion zone.Hybrid welding also has wide fusion zone.
Gap BridgingGood gap bridging.Poor gap bridging.Good gap bridging.
Weld penetrationArc welding has reduced penetration.Laser beam welding has deep weld pool.Hybrid welding also has relatively deep weld pool.
Welding passArc welding requires multi pass welding.Laser welding is a single pass welding of thick sections.Hybrid welding is also a single pass welding of thick sections.
Heat input per unit length.For arc welding, the heat input per unit length is high.For laser welding, the heat input per unit length is low.Hybrid welding also has low heat input per unit length.
Welding SpeedArc welding provides low welding speed.Laser welding has high welding speed.Hybrid welding has relatively high welding speed.
DistortionArc welding has high distortion.For laser welding, distortion is low.For hybrid welding, distortion is also low.
Arc StabilityArc welding provides reduced arc stability at higher welding speeds leads to humping.Laser welding has keyhole instability.In hybrid welding, the interaction of the laser and the arc stabilizes the arc.
Residual StressArc welding has high residual stress.It has low residual stress.Hybrid welding also has low residual stress.
Cracking PropensityIn arc welding, high propensity for solidification cracking.Increased propensity for cracking.Low propensity for cracking.
ProductivityLow productivity.High productivity.High productivity.
Cooling RateCooling rate is low.Cooling rate is high.Comparatively low cooling rates.
Updated on 04-Apr-2022 10:58:14