Difference between Arc Welding and Gas Welding

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Arc Welding

Arc welding is a welding process in which an electric arc created between the electrode and the base metal is employed to supply the necessary heat for melting down the intended surfaces of the workpiece for coalescence formation.

Gas Welding

Gas welding is a welding process in which a flame obtained by the combustion of a gaseous fuel with oxygen is used to supply the necessary heat required. This heat is used to metal the surfaces of the workpieces which are held together to form a joint.

Differences between Arc Welding and Gas Welding

The following table highlights several differences between arc welding and gas welding −

Arc WeldingGas Welding
In the arc welding process, an electric arc is created to produce the required heat for fusing the base metal for coalescence formation.In gas welding process, combustion of gaseous fuel with oxygen is employed to generate the required heat.
Arc welding can only be used for the metals which are electrically conductive.Gas welding is equally applicable for both electrically conductive and non-conductive metals.
Electric arc welding requires availability of electric power supply for its operation.No electric power supply is required in case of gas welding.
In case of arc welding, no cylinder containing fuel and oxygen is required.In case of gas welding, two cylinders are employed, one for gaseous fuel such as acetylene, propylene, etc. While another is required for containing oxygen.
Arc welding process requires shielding of the arc and the weld bead which is provided either by flux coating of the electrode or some inert gas.No shielding is provided in case of gas welding process.
As the arc temperature is very high, the temperature of the core is about more than 6000 °C. Therefore, arc welding can be used for joining of metals having high melting point.Temperature of the gas flame is comparatively low, about 3500 °C. Therefore, gas welding cannot be used for welding of the metals having very melting point.
The electric arc has a narrow cross-sectional area. Therefore, it reduces the width of weld bead and heat affected zone.The area of cross-section of the gas flame is relatively wider. Therefore, it results in wider weld bead and heat affected zone.
The high temperature and narrow electric arc increases the heat density, which results in quick fusion of metals.The lower temperature and wider gas flame result in less heat density. Thus, gas welding requires more for the welding process, which makes it uneconomical.
Arc welding can be used for joining thicker components.Gas welding is suitable only for thin plates and sheet metals.
Arc welding has inherent arc cleaning, due to flow of avalanche of electrons.In gas welding process, no arc cleaning takes place. Hence, the base metal requires cleaning prior to welding.
Arc welding is not suitable for heating, cleaning, cutting, etc.In addition to the joining of metals, the gas welding can be used for heating, gas cutting, brazing, soldering and cleaning, etc.
Updated on 16-Mar-2022 05:15:56