Biology - Vertebrata


The organisms of this kingdom have a true vertebral column and the internal skeleton structure.

Classification of Vertebrata

  • Vertebrates are further classified as −

    • Pisces

    • Amphibia

    • Reptilia

    • Aves

    • Mammalia

  • Let’s discuss each of them in brief −


  • The organisms of this group are typically different types of fishes.

  • Fishes can live only in water.

  • The skin fish is covered with scales/plates.

  • Fish use oxygen dissolved in water by using gills

  • The tail of fish helps in their movements.

  • Fishes are cold-blooded organisms and their hearts have only two chambers.

  • Fishes lay eggs.


  • The organisms of amphibia have mucus glands in the skin, and they have three-chambered heart.

  • Amphibian can live in water as well as on land.

  • The organisms of amphibian respire through either gills or lungs.

  • The organisms of amphibia lay eggs.


  • The organisms of this group are cold bolded.

  • The organisms of reptilia lay eggs with tough coverings.


  • The organisms of Aves group are warm-blooded.

  • The organisms of Aves group lay eggs except a few, such as bat.

  • Most of the Aves have feathers.


  • The organisms of Mammalia group are warm-blooded and they have four-chambered hearts.

  • Mammalia are typically characterized for their mammary glands.

  • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the young one.

  • Most of the mammals produce live baby; however, a few of mammals, such as, the platypus and the echidna lay eggs.

  • Mammals’ skin has hairs along with sweat and oil glands.