Biology - Plantae Kingdom


  • Plantae kingdom includes all sorts of plants belonging to multicellular eukaryotes.

Plantae Kingdom
  • These plants are autotrophs and they use chlorophyll for the photosynthesis.

Classification of Plantae Kingdom

  • Based on distinct body structure, components, etc. plantae kingdom is further classified as −

    • Thallophyta

    • Bryophyta

    • Pteridophyta

    • Gymnosperms

    • Angiosperms

  • Let’s discuss each of them in brief −


  • The plants of thallophyta do not have well-differentiated body design.

  • The plants in thallophyta are known as algae and they are predominantly aquatic.

  • Some of the significant examples of thallophyta are Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Cladophora, Chara, etc.


  • The plants of amphibian group are categorized as bryophyta.

  • Though not distinctly developed, but the plant body can be differentiated to form stem and leaf-like structures.

  • The examples of bryophyta are moss (Funaria) and Marchantia.


  • Plants of pteridophyta have defined roots, stem, and leaves.

  • Pteridophyta plants have specialized tissue that transports water and other materials from one part to another part of the plant.

  • Examples of pteridophyta are Marsilea, ferns, and horse-tails.

  • The commonality among the thallophytes, the bryophytes, and the pteridophytes are – all of them have naked embryos, which are known as spores.

  • The reproductive organs of plants of these groups are known as ‘cryptogamae,’ which means ‘hidden reproductive organs’.


  • The plants of gymnosperm bear naked seeds.

  • These plants are normally perennial, evergreen, and woody.

  • Examples of gymnosperm are pines (such as deodar, cycas, etc.


  • The plants of angiosperm bear covered seeds.

  • Plants of angiospherms are also known as flowing plants.

  • Plant embryos in seeds have a typical structures known as cotyledons, which is also called as ‘seed leaves.’