Biology - Conservation of Plants and Animals
The varieties of plants and animals that exists on earth, are essential for the wellbeing and survival of mankind.
Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is known as deforestation.
Some major consequences of deforestation are forest fires and frequent droughts.
Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth.
Deforestation increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Deforestation causes soil erosion; removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers; likewise, the fertile land gets converted into deserts and known as desertification.
Deforestation also decreases the water holding capacity of the soil.
Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms that exist on the earth, their interrelationships as well as their relationship with the environment.
To protect and conserve the biodiversity, the government set up rules, methods, and policies and created the protected areas such as wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.
Plantation, cultivation, grazing, cutting trees, hunting, and poaching are strictly prohibited there.
The protected area where animals are protected from all sorts of human interference or disturbance (which can harm) to them and their habitat is known as Sanctuary.
The protected area reserved for wild life where they can freely live, use the habitats, and natural resources is known as National Park.
The large protected area for the conservation of wild-life, plant and animal resources, and traditional life of the tribals living in the area is known as Biosphere Reserve.
A biosphere reserve assists to maintain the biodiversity and culture of the respective region.
A biosphere reserve may also have some other protected areas within it. E.g. The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve has one national park namely Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries namely Bori and Pachmarhi.
Endemic species are the species of plants and animals, which are found exclusively in a particular region.
Endemic species are not naturally found anywhere else other than the place where it is found. It means, a specific type of plant or animal may be endemic to a zone, a state or a country. E.g. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and Wild Mango are endemic fauna of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (see the images given below0.
The animals whose numbers are falling to a level that they might face extinction are categorized as the endangered animals.
The book that keeps the record of all the endangered species is known as Red Data Book.