Biology - Conservation of Plants and Animals


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Introduction

  • The varieties of plants and animals that exists on earth, are essential for the wellbeing and survival of mankind.

  • Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is known as deforestation.

  • Some major consequences of deforestation are forest fires and frequent droughts.

  • Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth.

  • Deforestation increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

  • Deforestation causes soil erosion; removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers; likewise, the fertile land gets converted into deserts and known as desertification.

  • Deforestation also decreases the water holding capacity of the soil.

  • Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms that exist on the earth, their interrelationships as well as their relationship with the environment.

Biosphere Reserves

  • To protect and conserve the biodiversity, the government set up rules, methods, and policies and created the protected areas such as wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.

  • Plantation, cultivation, grazing, cutting trees, hunting, and poaching are strictly prohibited there.

  • The protected area where animals are protected from all sorts of human interference or disturbance (which can harm) to them and their habitat is known as Sanctuary.

  • The protected area reserved for wild life where they can freely live, use the habitats, and natural resources is known as National Park.

  • The large protected area for the conservation of wild-life, plant and animal resources, and traditional life of the tribals living in the area is known as Biosphere Reserve.

  • A biosphere reserve assists to maintain the biodiversity and culture of the respective region.

  • A biosphere reserve may also have some other protected areas within it. E.g. The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve has one national park namely Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries namely Bori and Pachmarhi.

  • Endemic species are the species of plants and animals, which are found exclusively in a particular region.

  • Endemic species are not naturally found anywhere else other than the place where it is found. It means, a specific type of plant or animal may be endemic to a zone, a state or a country. E.g. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and Wild Mango are endemic fauna of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (see the images given below0.

Giant Squirrel
  • The animals whose numbers are falling to a level that they might face extinction are categorized as the endangered animals.

Wild Mango
  • The book that keeps the record of all the endangered species is known as Red Data Book.



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