The resources, available on the Earth and the energy being received from the Sun, are essential to meet the basic necessities of all life-forms on the Earth.
The biotic component incorporates all living of the biosphere.
The abiotic component incorporates the air, the water, and the soil of the biosphere.
Biogeochemical cycles explain a constant interaction between the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere.
Biogeochemical cycles are a dynamic phenomenon that helps to maintain the stability in the ecosystem.
The significant biogeochemical cycles are −
Let’s discuss each of them in brief −
The whole process, starting from the water evaporation, rainfall to flowing back into the sea via rivers, is known as the water-cycle.
As shown in the image given above, water cycle is a complex phenomenon. During the process of water cycle, it helps ecosystem by maintaining its balance.
Water cycle helps in making new fertile soil, increasing the fertility of soil, providing nutrition to the biotic components in different ecological regions, etc.
Carbon is found on the Earth in various forms, such as diamond and graphite (in solid form) and in combined state i.e. carbon and dioxide (as a gas).
Carbon is one of the essential elements for the photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide, which is present in the atmosphere or dissolved in water into glucose molecules.
The glucose provides energy to living things that involves the process of respiration.
In the process of respiration, oxygen may or may not be used to convert glucose back into carbon dioxide.
Lastly, the carbon dioxide goes back into the atmosphere.
About 78 percent part of our atmosphere is shared by nitrogen alone.
Nitrogen is a part of many molecules, which are essential for the life.
There are a few varieties of bacteria that help in nitrogen-fixing.
These special bacteria convert the comparatively inert nitrogen molecules into nitrates and nitrites essential for the life in direct or indirect way.
The nitrogen-fixing bacteria are largely found in the roots of legumes.
In the total constituents of our atmosphere, about 21 percent is shared by oxygen.
Oxygen is also found in the Earth’s crust.
Oxygen is an essential component of most of the biological molecules, including carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and fats (or lipids).
Oxygen, present in the atmosphere, is used especially up in the three following processes −
Formation of oxides of nitrogen
Oxygen is returned back to the atmosphere by the process of photosynthesis.
Oxygen is lifeline of most of the organisms found on the earth, but for some bacteria, it is poisonous.