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Battle of Buxar
British power gradually started to conquer the territories of India as a British East India Company after the advent of the British. This battle is an example of one of the most confrontations that were seen between the power of the British and their counterparts of India. This incident guided to pave rule of the British East India Company for next 20 decades.
What is the Reason for the Battle of Buxar?
Several reasons can be seen for this battle and they are listed below.
Figure 1: The causes of the battle
Mir Qasim wanted to be an independent ruler of Bengal without the influence of the British and opposed the incorporation of the British into the activities of his territory. Besides this, he observed that the British misused the instruments of Dustak as well as Farman.
Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daulah did not satisfy with the activities of the British and the gradual expansion of the company. The unfair practices of the company led to the unity of the two Nawabs and the fight against them.
The demand of Company officials was continuously increasing and they used the Dustal as per their preference. Because of the preferential treatment, the company began to incur a greater amount of revenue compared to the Nawab of India. This is another significant reason for this battle.
Background of the Battle of Buxar
After Plassey’ battle, which was fought in 1757 when Robert Clive ruined the strength of Siraj ud-Daulah, the last Nawab of the Bengal legion that was independent. After the death of the Nawab in battle, Mir Jafar, his commander of him was installed on the throne of Bengal and he was like a puppet of the British. Thereafter, Mir Jafar made a connection with the Dutch invader and that is the reason for the anger of the British ruler.
British purged him and installed Mir Qasim on the throne of Bengal who was his son-in-law and he shifted his capital city from Murshidabad to Munger. Then he exerted independence by opposing the company as they showed insubordination to the government.
Important Personalities of the Battle of Buxar
Several important personalities were seen in the battle of Buxar and they strictly opposed the rule of the British.
|Personalities of Battle of Buxar||Their position in battle|
|Mir Qasim||He was the main administrator of this battle who first opposed the misuse of Dustak as well as Farman by the company. He tried to conspire with the other two Nawabs against British rule.|
|Shuja-Ud-Daulah||He was a part of this confederacy with the joint venture of Shah Alam-II and Mir Qasim.|
|Shah Alam II||He fought against the British and tried to overthrow from the region of Bengal.|
|Hector Munro||He was the army major from the British side and led this battle against the Indians.|
|Robert Clive||This personality was the leader and mastermind of this battle. He compelled for signing the Indian ruler’s treaties after he won the battle.|
Table 1: Important Personalities of the Battle of Buxar
Results of the Battle of Buxar
The ultimate result of this battle was the loss of Indian rulers and the company became more powerful in the northern part of India. After this battle, they started to expand their business more and more. Mir Jafar was compelled to hand over some of these provinces such as Midnapore, Burdwan as well as Chittagong for the maintenance of the army people of the British.
The company stated a duty-free business except for salt, which was only two per cent. After Mir Jafar, his heir Najimud-Daula was installed as Nawab and he was fully controlled by British administrators (Roy, 2022). Clive made an agreement for settlements of polity jointly with Shah Alam-II as well as Shuja-Ud-Daula in the Allahabad’s treaty.
Treaty of Allahabad
Clive in Allahabad signed two significant treaties with Indian rulers, one with Shuja-Ud- Daulah and the other with Shah Alam-II.
In the treaty with Shuja-Ud-Daulah, he had to provide 50 lakhs to the company for war indemnity and made Balwant Singh who was the Zamindar of the region of Benaras complete possession of the estate.
The treaty with Shah Alam-II focused on the increment of protection of the company and the ruler was compelled for issuing a Farman that denotes the Bengal’s Diwan along with Bihar as well as Orissa to them. The rulers have to pay 26 lakhs annually to the company. Shah Alam had to provide 53 lakhs for the purpose of military along with police as well as administration purpose.
The Buxur’s battle was fought by Mir Qasim the Bengal’s Nawab along within the Shuja-ud- Daula who was the Awadh’s Nawab and the emperor of Mughal dynasty Shah Alam II against the company on the 22nd October 1764 in the place of Buxar that is presently situated in Bihar. This battle made a strong foothold for the company in India and the British founded colonial rule all over the country.
Q.1. What is the significance of this battle?
Ans. This battle helped the company conquer most of the Indian rulers and captured the territories of Bengal, Bihar as well as Odisha. After this battle, the company got absolute control of India.
Q.2. What is the reason for the victory of the British?
Ans. The army of the British contains only 10,000 soldiers while the Indian army contained more than 40,000 soldiers. The lack of coordination and technology are the primary reason for defeating Indian rulers.
Q.3. Why this battle had a greater significance than the Battle of Plassey?
Ans. This battle is more significant because it paved the way for company performances. After this battle, the company got full political and administrative control over India.
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