## Voltage Follower using Operational Amplifier – Definition, Circuit Diagram, Working, and Applications

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:39:22
An electronic circuit in which the output voltage follows the input voltage is known as a voltage follower. In other words, a voltage follower is an electronic circuit whose output voltage remains the same as the input voltage. We can design a voltage follower using an operational amplifier. A voltage follower implemented using an operational amplifier is commonly known as a Unity Gain Operational Amplifier or Op-amp Buffer. In this article, we will discuss the definition, circuit, working, advantages, and applications of a voltage follower designed using an operational amplifier. So let’s begin with the basic introduction of a voltage ... Read More

## Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) – Definition, Block Diagram, Types, and Applications

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:36:59
In this article, we will discuss the uninterruptible power supply (UPS), its block diagram, types, and applications. So, lets’ begin with the basic definition of the uninterrupted power supply (UPS). What is a UPS? UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is an electrical device used to provide emergency electrical power to different electrical loads in the case of a main power supply failure. A UPS or uninterruptible power supply uses batteries and supercapacitors to store electrical energy and delivers this stored electrical energy when the main input power supply fails. However, a typical UPS battery ... Read More

## Types of Voltage Regulators – Linear, Zener Diode and Shunt

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:34:48
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit which is used to control the variations in the output voltage of a power supply so that it will remain within the suitable limits. Since, in the case of practical circuits, the voltage changes due to several reasons such as change in input voltage, change in temperature of the circuit components, etc. But, ideally, the voltage output of the power supply should be in a certain range that is acceptable for the connected circuit. This is achieved by using a circuit called voltage regulator. In this article, we will discuss the different types ... Read More

## Temperature Coefficient of Resistance – Definition, Formula and Examples

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:33:11
The electrical and electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, wires, cables, insulators, etc. are made up of different types of material. We generally refer all these materials as engineering materials. Based on electrical resistivity, the engineering materials are categorized into three categories namely – conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Since every material present in the nature possess a finite amount of electrical resistance. Also, this resistance can change with the variation in the temperature. The following points briefly explain the variation in resistance of the different types of materials with the change in temperature − The resistance of conductors ... Read More

## Quality Factor of Inductor and Capacitor

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:27:55
A parameter of an oscillatory system, such as an ac circuit, which expresses the relationship between stored energy and energy dissipation is known as quality factor of the system. The quality factor is also called as Q-factor. Mathematically, the quality factor or Q-factor of an ac circuit is given by the ratio of the maximum electrical energy stored in the circuit to the energy dissipated in one time period, i.e., $$\mathrm{ Q \: Factor =\frac{2\pi \times maximum\: energy \: stored\: per\: cycle}{Energy\: dissipated\: per\: cycle} }$$ The quality factor (Q-factor) can ... Read More

## Independent and Dependent Voltage and Current Sources

Updated on 16-Dec-2022 15:25:08
In electrical and electronic circuits, some components are used to supply the required electrical energy for the operation of the circuit. These components are known as energy sources. Energy sources are the active circuit elements that can supply the necessary excitation, i.e. required electrical energy, to the circuit. In practice, we have several types of voltage and current sources such as batteries, generators, alternators, photovoltaic cells, etc. In this article, we will discuss the different types of energy sources. Types of Energy Sources The energy sources are broadly classified into the following two types − Voltage Sources Current Sources ... Read More

## How to Calculate Equivalent Resistance (Series & Parallel Circuit Examples)

Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:30:01
In electrical and electronic circuits, resistance or electrical resistance is defined as the amount of friction in the flow of electric current (or electric charge) offered by the conductor material. The electric circuit element that is used to introduce the electrical resistance in the circuit is called resistor. The resistor is a passive circuit element that controls the flow of current through a circuit, and coverts the extra amount of electrical energy into heat. Sometimes, we do not have a resistor of desired resistance that is required in the circuit. For this reason, we connect two or more resistor in ... Read More

## Factors Affecting the Resistance of a Conductor

Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:26:36
In this article, we will discuss the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor and the change in the resistance of a substance with the variation in temperature. Let’s begin with a basic introduction of electrical resistance. Electrical resistance is defined as the measure of opposition that a material offers in the path of electric current. The electrical resistance is denoted by the symbol R and is measured in Ohms (Ω). The electrical resistance of a conductor is given by the following empirical formula, $$\mathrm{R=\frac{\rho l}{a}\: \: \cdot \cdot \cdot \left ( 1 \right )}$$ Where, ρ (rho) is a ... Read More

## Energy Stored in a Capacitor – Formula and Examples

Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:24:05
A capacitor is an electronic circuit component that stores electrical energy in the form of electrostatic charge. Thus, a capacitor stores the potential energy in it. This stored electrical energy can be obtained when required. Ideally, a capacitor does not dissipate energy, but stores it. A typical capacitor consists of two metallic plates separated by an insulating material, called dielectric. When these two metallic plates of the capacitor are connected to a source of electrical energy, the capacitor starts charging and stores electrical energy in its dielectric. Therefore, it is important to derive the expression of this stored energy in ... Read More

## Electrical Transformers – Formulas and Equations Handbook

Updated on 15-Dec-2022 17:23:21
Electrical transformers are one of the most widely used electrical machines in different fields of electrical engineering like power systems. So as an electrical engineer, we frequently required to calculate different parameters of a transformer to determine its operating conditions. For this, we require standard formulae, which we have listed in the following sections of this article. This page will serve as an electrical transformer formula handbook for electrical engineering students and professionals. Definition of Transformer A transformer is a static ac electrical machine used in electrical power systems for transforming (i.e. increasing or decreasing) the voltage level as ... Read More