Found 640 Articles for Computer Science

What is Cube-Connected Networks in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:32:08
Cube-connected networks are patterned after the n-cube structure. An n-cube (hypercube of order n) is defined as an undirected graph having 2n vertices labeled 0 to 2n - 1 such that there is an edge between a given pair of vertices if and only if the binary representation of their addresses differs by one and only one bit. In a cube-based multiprocessor system, processing elements are positioned at the vertices of the graph. Edges of the graph represent the point-to-point communication links between processors.Each processor in a 4-cube is connected to four other processors. In an n-cube, each processor has ... Read More

What are the types of Static Interconnection Networks in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:31:17
Static (fixed) interconnection networks are characterized by having fixed paths, unidirectional or bidirectional, between processors. Two types of static networks can be identified. These are completely connected networks (CCNs) and limited connection networks (LCNs).Completely Connected NetworksIn a completely connected network (CCN) each node is connected to all other nodes in the network. Completely connected networks guarantee fast delivery of messages from any source node to any destination node (only one link has to be traversed).Since every node is connected to every other node in the network, routing of messages between nodes becomes a straightforward task. Completely connected networks are, however, ... Read More

What is Blocking Networks and Non-Blocking Networks in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:29:32
Blocking NetworksBlocking networks possess the property that in the presence of a currently established interconnection between a pair of input/output, the arrival of a request for a new interconnection between two arbitrary unused input and output may or may not be possible. Examples of blocking networks include Omega, Banyan, Shuffle–Exchange, and Baseline. Consider, for example SEN, as shown in the figure.In the presence of a connection between input 101 and output 011, a connection between input 100 and output 001 is not possible. This is because the connection 101 to 011 uses the upper output of the third switch from ... Read More

What is Switch-based Interconnection Networks in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:28:15
In this type of network, connections among processors and memory modules are made using simple switches. There are three basic interconnection topologies such as crossbar, single-stage, and multistage.Crossbar NetworksA crossbar network defines the other extreme to the limited single bus network. While the single bus can provide only a single connection, the crossbar can provide simultaneous connections among all its inputs and all its outputs. The crossbar includes a switching element (SE) at the intersection of any two lines extended horizontally or vertically inside the switch.Single-Stage NetworksIn this case, a single stage of switching elements (SEs) exists between the inputs ... Read More

What is MIMD Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:25:32
MIMD stands for Multiple-instruction multiple-data streams. It includes parallel architectures are made of multiple processors and multiple memory modules linked via some interconnection network. They fall into two broad types including shared memory or message passing.A shared memory system generally accomplishes interprocessor coordination through a global memory shared by all processors. These are frequently server systems that communicate through a bus and cache memory controller.The bus/ cache architecture alleviates the need for expensive multi-ported memories and interface circuitry as well as the need to adopt a message-passing paradigm when developing application software. Because access to shared memory is balanced, these ... Read More

What is SIMD Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:23:08
SIMD represents single-instruction multiple-data streams. The SIMD model of parallel computing includes two parts such as a front-end computer of the usual von Neumann style, and a processor array as displayed in the figure.The processor array is a collection of identical synchronized processing elements adequate for simultaneously implementing the same operation on various data. Each processor in the array has a small amount of local memory where the distributed data resides while it is being processed in parallel.The processor array is linked to the memory bus of the front end so that the front end can randomly create the local ... Read More

What are Vector-Access Memory Schemes in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:21:26
The flow of vector operands between the main memory and vector registers is generally pipelined with various access paths. In this section, we specify vector operands and describe three vector-access schemes from interleaved memory modules allowing overlapped memory accesses.Vector Operand Specifications − Vector operands can have arbitrary lengths. Vector elements are not essentially saved in contiguous memory areas. For example, the entries in a matrix may be stored in row-major or in column-major. Each row, column, or diagonal of the matrix can be used as a vector.When row elements are stored in contiguous locations with a unit stride, the column ... Read More

What are the types of Vector Instructions?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:19:04
A vector is a set of scalar data elements, all of similar type, saved in memory. The vector elements are ordered to have a permanent addressing increment between successive elements known as the stride.A vector processor is an ensemble of hardware resources, such as vector registers, functional pipelines, processing elements, and register counters, for executing vector operations.Vector processing appears when arithmetic or logical operations are used to vectors. It is distinguished from scalar processing which operates on one or one pair of data. The conversion from scalar code to vector code is known as vectorization.Types of Vector InstructionsThere are various ... Read More

What is Parallel Algorithm?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:15:58
Parallel algorithms are those specially devised for parallel computers. The idealized parallel algorithms are those written for the PRAM models if no physical constraints or communication overheads are imposed. In the real world, an algorithm is considered efficient only if it can be cost-effectively implemented on physical machines. In this sense, all machine-implementable algorithms must be architecture-dependent. This means the effects of communication overhead and architectural constraints cannot be ignored.Characteristics of Parallel AlgorithmThere are various characteristics of parallel algorithm which are as follows −Deterministic versus nondeterministic − It is only deterministic algorithms are implementable on real machines. Our study is ... Read More

What is Distributed-Memory Multicomputer in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:14:07
A distributed-memory multicomputer system is modeled in the figure. The system includes multiple computers known as nodes, related by a message-passing network. Each node is an independent computer including a processor, local memory, and sometimes connected disks or I/O peripherals.The message-passing network supports point-to-point static connections among the nodes. All local memories are private and are applicable only by local processors. For this method, traditional multicomputer has been referred to as no-remote-memory-access (NORMA) machines.This condition will constantly be deleted in future multicomputer with distributed shared memories. Internode communication is carried out by passing messages through the static connection network.Multicomputer Generations ... Read More