Found 640 Articles for Computer Science

What is the VLIW Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:02:24
VLIW stands for Very-Long Instruction Word (VLIW) architectures. It is an appropriate alternative for exploiting instruction-level parallelism (ILP) in programs, especially, for performing more than one basic (primitive) instruction at a time.These processors include various functional units, fetch from the instruction cache a Very-Long Instruction Word including various primitive instructions, and dispatch the whole VLIW for parallel implementation.These capacities are exploited by compilers that produce code that has grouped separate primitive instructions executable in parallel. The processors have associatively simple control logic because they do not implement any dynamic scheduling nor reordering of operations.The main goal of VLIW is to ... Read More

What are the Data Routing Functions in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:58:01
Data routing networks are used for inter PE data exchange. Data routing networks can be static or dynamic. In a multicomputer network, data routing is achieved by messages among multiple computer nodes.Routing network reduces the time required for data exchange and thus system performance is enhanced. Commonly used data routing functions are shifting, rotation, permutations, broadcast, multicast, personalized communication, shuffle, etc.There are various data routing functions which are as follows −Permutations − Let there are n objects, and then there are n permutations by which n objects can be recorded. The set of all permutations form a permutation group concerning ... Read More

What are the different network properties in Computer Architectures?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:51:38
The topology of an interconnection network can be static or dynamic. Static networks are created point-to-point direct connections which will not alter during implementation. Dynamic networks are applied with switched channels, which are dynamically constructed to connect the communication demand in user programs.Static Networks − Static networks are used for fixed connections amid subsystems of a centralized system or various computing nodes of a distributed system. Dynamic networks include buses, crossbar switches, multistage networks, which are provide used in shared-memory multiprocessors. Both types of networks have also been applying for inter PE data routing in SIMD computers.In general, a network ... Read More

What is Data flow Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:50:32
There are few experimental data flow computer projects. The associates at MIT have developed a tagged token architecture for constructing data flow computers.The global architecture incorporates n processing elements (PEs) inter-connected by an n x n routing network. The complete system provides pipelined data flow operations in all n PEs. Inter PE communications are completed by the pipelined routing network.In each PE, the machine offers a low-level token matching structure that sends off only those instructions whose input data are already accessible. Each datum is identified with the address of the instruction to which it belongs and the context in ... Read More

What are program flow mechanisms?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:47:53
Traditional computers are founded on a control flow structure by which the series of program implementation is particularly established in the user program. Data flow computers have a high degree of parallelism at the fine-grain instruction-level reduction computers are based on a demand-driven method which commences operation based on the demand for its result by other computations.Data flow & control flow computers − There are mainly two sorts of computers as data flow computers are connectional computers depends on the Von Neumann machine. It transfers out instructions under program flow control whereas the control flow computer implements instructions under the ... Read More

What are the different shared-memory multiprocessor models?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:46:02
The most popular parallel computers are those that implement programs in MIMD mode. There are two major types of parallel computers such as shared memory multiprocessor & message-passing multi computers. The main difference between multiprocessors & multicomputer lies in memory sharing and the structure used for interprocessor communication.The processor in the multiprocessor system communicates with each other through a shared variable in common memory. Each computer node in a multicomputer system has local memory, unshared with different nodes. Inter-process communication is done through message passing among nodes.Three shared memory multiprocessor models are as follows −UMA ModelUMA stands for Uniform memory ... Read More

What are the different levels of Parallelism?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:44:06
There are different level of parallelism which are as follows −Instruction Level − At instruction level, a grain is consist of less than 20 instruction called fine grain. Fine-grain parallelism at this level may range from two thousand depending on an individual program single instruction stream parallelism is greater than two but the average parallelism at instruction level is around fine rarely exceeding seven in an ordinary program.For scientific applications, the average parallel is in the range of 500 to 300 Fortran statements executing concurrently in an idealized environment.Loop Level − It embraces iterative loop operations. A loop may contain ... Read More

What are the conditions of Parallelism in Computer Architecture?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:42:52
There are various conditions of Parallelism which are as follows −Data and resource dependencies − A program is made up of several parts, so the ability to implement various program segments in parallel is needed that each segment should be autonomous regarding the other segment. Dependencies in various segments of a program may be in various forms like resource dependency, control depending & data depending.A dependence graph can define the relation. The program statements are defined by nodes and the directed edge with multiple labels displays the ordered relation among the statements. After analyzing the dependence graph, it can be ... Read More

How is computer Architecture developed?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:39:53
In many years, computer architecture has gone through evolutional instead of revolution changes supporting features are those that were demonstrated execution delivers.According to the figure we initiated with the Von Neumann architecture developed as a sequential machine implementing scalar information. Sequential devices enhanced from bit serial to word-parallel operations & from fixed point to floating-point operations. The Von Neumann architecture is moderate because of the sequential implementation of instructions in the program.Look ahead, Parallelism, and Pipelining − Lookahead methods were initiating to prefetch instructions to overlap I/E (instruction fetch/decode and execution) operations and to allow functional parallelism.Functional parallelism was provided ... Read More

What is Computational Model?

Updated on 30-Jul-2021 13:37:04
It is widely observed that certain computer architecture classes and programming language classes correspond to one another. For example von Neumann architectures and imperative languages, or reduction architectures and functional languages. The corresponding architecture and language classes must have a common foundation or paradigm called a computational model.The computational model comprises the set of following three abstractions are as shown in the figure −The first abstraction identifies the basic items of computation. This is a specification of the items the computation refers to any kind of computations that can be performed on them.For instance, in the Von Neumann computational model, ... Read More