PL/SQL - IF-THEN-ELSIF Statement

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The IF-THEN-ELSIF statement allows you to choose between several alternatives. An IF-THEN statement can be followed by an optional ELSIF...ELSE statement. The ELSIF clause lets you add additional conditions.

When using IF-THEN-ELSIF statements there are few points to keep in mind.

  • It's ELSIF, not ELSEIF

  • An IF-THEN statement can have zero or one ELSE's and it must come after any ELSIF's.

  • An IF-THEN statement can have zero to many ELSIF's and they must come before the ELSE.

  • Once an ELSIF succeeds, none of the remaining ELSIF's or ELSE's will be tested.

Syntax:

The syntax of an IF-THEN-ELSIF Statement in PL/SQL programming language is:

IF(boolean_expression 1)THEN 
   S1; -- Executes when the boolean expression 1 is true 
ELSIF( boolean_expression 2) THEN
   S2;  -- Executes when the boolean expression 2 is true 
ELSIF( boolean_expression 3) THEN
   S3; -- Executes when the boolean expression 3 is true 
ELSE 
   S4; -- executes when the none of the above condition is true 
END IF;

Example:

DECLARE
   a number(3) := 100;
BEGIN
   IF ( a = 10 ) THEN
      dbms_output.put_line('Value of a is 10' );
   ELSIF ( a = 20 ) THEN
      dbms_output.put_line('Value of a is 20' );
   ELSIF ( a = 30 ) THEN
      dbms_output.put_line('Value of a is 30' );
   ELSE
       dbms_output.put_line('None of the values is matching');
   END IF;
   dbms_output.put_line('Exact value of a is: '|| a ); 
END;
/

When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces the following result:

None of the values is matching
Exact value of a is: 100

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


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