Hibernate - One-to-Many Mappings


A One-to-Many mapping can be implemented using a Set java collection that does not contain any duplicate element. We already have seen how to map Set collection in hibernate, so if you already learned Set mapping then you are all set to go with one-to-many mapping.

A Set is mapped with a <set> element in the mapping table and initialized with java.util.HashSet. You can use Set collection in your class when there is no duplicate element required in the collection.

Define RDBMS Tables

Consider a situation where we need to store our employee records in EMPLOYEE table, which will have the following structure −

create table EMPLOYEE (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   first_name VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   last_name  VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   salary     INT  default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

Further, assume each employee can have one or more certificate associated with him/her. So, we will store certificate related information in a separate table having the following structure −

create table CERTIFICATE (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   certificate_name VARCHAR(30) default NULL,
   employee_id INT default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

There will be one-to-many relationship between EMPLOYEE and CERTIFICATE objects −

Define POJO Classes

Let us implement our POJO class Employee, which will be used to persist the objects related to EMPLOYEE table and having a collection of certificates in a Set variable.

import java.util.*;

public class Employee {
   private int id;
   private String firstName; 
   private String lastName;   
   private int salary;
   private Set certificates;

   public Employee() {}
   
   public Employee(String fname, String lname, int salary) {
      this.firstName = fname;
      this.lastName = lname;
      this.salary = salary;
   }
   
   public int getId() {
      return id;
   }
   
   public void setId( int id ) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   
   public String getFirstName() {
      return firstName;
   }
   
   public void setFirstName( String first_name ) {
      this.firstName = first_name;
   }
   
   public String getLastName() {
      return lastName;
   }
   
   public void setLastName( String last_name ) {
      this.lastName = last_name;
   }
   
   public int getSalary() {
      return salary;
   }
   
   public void setSalary( int salary ) {
      this.salary = salary;
   }

   
   public Set getCertificates() {
      return certificates;
   }
   
   public void setCertificates( Set certificates ) {
      this.certificates = certificates;
   }
}

Now, let us define another POJO class corresponding to CERTIFICATE table so that certificate objects can be stored and retrieved into the CERTIFICATE table. This class should also implement both the equals() and hashCode() methods so that Java can determine whether any two elements/objects are identical.

public class Certificate {
   private int id;
   private String name; 

   public Certificate() {}
   
   public Certificate(String name) {
      this.name = name;
   }
   
   public int getId() {
      return id;
   }
   
   public void setId( int id ) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   
   public String getName() {
      return name;
   }
   
   public void setName( String name ) {
      this.name = name;
   }
   
   public boolean equals(Object obj) {
      if (obj == null) return false;
      if (!this.getClass().equals(obj.getClass())) return false;

      Certificate obj2 = (Certificate)obj;
      if((this.id == obj2.getId()) && (this.name.equals(obj2.getName()))) {
         return true;
      }
      return false;
   }
   
   public int hashCode() {
      int tmp = 0;
      tmp = ( id + name ).hashCode();
      return tmp;
   }
}

Define Hibernate Mapping File

Let us develop our mapping file, which instructs Hibernate how to map the defined classes to the database tables.

<?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC 
"-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
"http://www.hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd"> 

<hibernate-mapping>
   <class name = "Employee" table = "EMPLOYEE">
      
      <meta attribute = "class-description">
         This class contains the employee detail. 
      </meta>
      
      <id name = "id" type = "int" column = "id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
      
      <set name = "certificates" cascade="all">
         <key column = "employee_id"/>
         <one-to-many class="Certificate"/>
      </set>
      
      <property name = "firstName" column = "first_name" type = "string"/>
      <property name = "lastName" column = "last_name" type = "string"/>
      <property name = "salary" column = "salary" type = "int"/>
      
   </class>

   <class name = "Certificate" table = "CERTIFICATE">
      
      <meta attribute = "class-description">
         This class contains the certificate records. 
      </meta>
      
      <id name = "id" type = "int" column = "id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
      
      <property name = "name" column = "certificate_name" type = "string"/>
      
   </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

You should save the mapping document in a file with the format <classname>.hbm.xml. We saved our mapping document in the file Employee.hbm.xml. You are already familiar with most of the mapping detail, but let us see all the elements of mapping file once again −

Create Application Class

Finally, we will create our application class with the main() method to run the application. We will use this application to save few Employee's records along with their certificates and then we will apply CRUD operations on those records.

import java.util.*;
 
import org.hibernate.HibernateException; 
import org.hibernate.Session; 
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

public class ManageEmployee {
   private static SessionFactory factory; 
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      
      try {
         factory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory();
      } catch (Throwable ex) { 
         System.err.println("Failed to create sessionFactory object." + ex);
         throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex); 
      }
      
      ManageEmployee ME = new ManageEmployee();
      /* Let us have a set of certificates for the first employee  */
      HashSet set1 = new HashSet();
      set1.add(new Certificate("MCA"));
      set1.add(new Certificate("MBA"));
      set1.add(new Certificate("PMP"));
     
      /* Add employee records in the database */
      Integer empID1 = ME.addEmployee("Manoj", "Kumar", 4000, set1);

      /* Another set of certificates for the second employee  */
      HashSet set2 = new HashSet();
      set2.add(new Certificate("BCA"));
      set2.add(new Certificate("BA"));

      /* Add another employee record in the database */
      Integer empID2 = ME.addEmployee("Dilip", "Kumar", 3000, set2);

      /* List down all the employees */
      ME.listEmployees();

      /* Update employee's salary records */
      ME.updateEmployee(empID1, 5000);

      /* Delete an employee from the database */
      ME.deleteEmployee(empID2);

      /* List down all the employees */
      ME.listEmployees();

   }

   /* Method to add an employee record in the database */
   public Integer addEmployee(String fname, String lname, int salary, Set cert){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      Integer employeeID = null;
      
      try {
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         Employee employee = new Employee(fname, lname, salary);
         employee.setCertificates(cert);
         employeeID = (Integer) session.save(employee); 
         tx.commit();
      } catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
      return employeeID;
   }

   /* Method to list all the employees detail */
   public void listEmployees( ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      
      try {
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         List employees = session.createQuery("FROM Employee").list(); 
         for (Iterator iterator1 = employees.iterator(); iterator1.hasNext();){
            Employee employee = (Employee) iterator1.next(); 
            System.out.print("First Name: " + employee.getFirstName()); 
            System.out.print("  Last Name: " + employee.getLastName()); 
            System.out.println("  Salary: " + employee.getSalary());
            Set certificates = employee.getCertificates();
            for (Iterator iterator2 = certificates.iterator(); iterator2.hasNext();){
               Certificate certName = (Certificate) iterator2.next(); 
               System.out.println("Certificate: " + certName.getName()); 
            }
         }
         tx.commit();
      } catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }
   
   /* Method to update salary for an employee */
   public void updateEmployee(Integer EmployeeID, int salary ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      try {
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         Employee employee = (Employee)session.get(Employee.class, EmployeeID); 
         employee.setSalary( salary );
         session.update(employee);
         tx.commit();
      } catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }
   
   /* Method to delete an employee from the records */
   public void deleteEmployee(Integer EmployeeID){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      
      try {
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         Employee employee = (Employee)session.get(Employee.class, EmployeeID); 
         session.delete(employee); 
         tx.commit();
      } catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      } finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }
}

Compilation and Execution

Here are the steps to compile and run the above mentioned application. Make sure you have set PATH and CLASSPATH appropriately before proceeding for the compilation and execution.

You would get the following result on the screen, and same time records would be created in EMPLOYEE and CERTIFICATE tables.

$java ManageEmployee
.......VARIOUS LOG MESSAGES WILL DISPLAY HERE........

First Name: Manoj  Last Name: Kumar  Salary: 4000
Certificate: MBA
Certificate: PMP
Certificate: MCA
First Name: Dilip  Last Name: Kumar  Salary: 3000
Certificate: BCA
Certificate: BA
First Name: Manoj  Last Name: Kumar  Salary: 5000
Certificate: MBA
Certificate: PMP
Certificate: MCA

If you check your EMPLOYEE and CERTIFICATE tables, they should have following records −

mysql> select * from employee;
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| id | first_name | last_name | salary |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| 1  | Manoj      | Kumar     |   5000 |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from certificate;
+----+------------------+-------------+
| id | certificate_name | employee_id |
+----+------------------+-------------+
| 1  | MBA              |          1  |
| 2  | PMP              |          1  |
| 3  | MCA              |          1  |
+----+------------------+-------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>
hibernate_or_mappings.htm