What is Transmission media?

A transmission media can be represented as anything that can take data from a source to a destination. The transmission media function maintains the data in the form of bits through LAN (Local Area Network).

In data communications, the definition of the data and the transmission medium is more precise. The transmission medium is generally free space (i.e., air), metallic cable or fiber-optic cable. The data is frequently a signal that is the result of a conversion of data from another form.

Causes of Transmission Impairment

  • Noise absorption is due to susceptibility leading to external electrical noise, distorting the data signal and data errors.
  • Radiations are the media’s signal leakage due to the media’s undesirable electrical characteristics.
  • Radiation and the physical features of the media causes attenuation or reduction in the signal strength as the signal travels over the wire or through free space. Attenuation limits the usable distance that can travel on the media.
  • Bandwidth is the thickness of the frequency spectrum of a medium.

Types of Transmission Media

Following are the two types of transmission media −

Guided Media (Wired Media)

In the guided media, the signal energy is involved and guided within a solid media. The guided media can be used for point-to-point communication. Examples of guided media are Twisted pair cable, Co-axial Cable, and Fiber optic cable.

Unguided Media (Wireless Media)

In this media, the signal energy propagates in the structure of unguided electromagnetic waves. Examples of unguided media are radio and infrared light.

Difference between Wired Media and Wireless Media

Wired MediaWireless Media
The signal energy is contained and guided or propagated inside a solid medium.The signal energy propagates in the structure of unguided electromagnetic waves in the air.
It can be used for point to point communication.It can be used for radio advertising in all directions.
It makes discrete network topologies.It makes continuous network topology.
This capacity can be further increased by inserting more cables for transmission.In this capacity of transmission cannot be increased beyond the limit.
It is expensive, time-consuming and difficult to install.Its installation is less time-consuming.
Examples are twisted pair, Co-axial cable, and Optical fiber.An example is Radio & Infrared Waves.