What is the History of DES?

Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a block cipher algorithm that creates plain text in blocks of 64 bits and transform them to ciphertext utilizing keys of 48 bits. It is a symmetric key algorithm, which defines that the similar key is used for encrypting and decrypting information.

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key block cipher invented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In 1973, NIST invented a request for suggestion for a national symmetric-key cryptosystem.

A scheme from IBM, a modification of a project known as Lucifer, and was approved as DES. DES was invented in the Federal Register in March 1975 as a plan of the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS).

After the advertisement, the plan was criticized severely for two reasons. First, critics questioned the small key length (only 56 bits), which can create the cipher vulnerable to brute-force attack. Second, critics were concerned about some secret design behind the internal mechanism of DES.

They were apprehensive that several element of the structure (the S-boxes) can have some secret trapdoor that can enable the National Security Agency (NSA) to decrypt the messages outside the requirement for the key. Later IBM designers specified that the internal mechanism was designed to avoid differential cryptanalysis.

DES was finally invented as FIPS 46 in the Federal Register in January 1977. NIST represent DES as the standard for use in unclassified software. DES has been generally used symmetric-key block cipher because its publication.

DES is a Feistel Block Cipher implementation, called a LUCIFER. It need a Feistel structure with 16 rounds, where a different key can be used for each round. It depends on LUCIFER (also called a Feistel block cipher algorithm) which is a direct predecessor of the DES algorithm.

In DES, it is invented by eminent scholar and researcher Horst Feistel at IBM. It supports large security by utilizing a 128-bit key block and a 128-bit block size. The DES algorithm need the 16 rounds of the Feistel structure. The mechanism need a unique key for every round. Finally, in 1976, it was authorized by the federal encryption standard.

In 2002, AES restored the DES encryption algorithm as the authorized standard. Later in 1995, the progressive form of the DES algorithm was introduced that is called a Triple DES (3DES or TDES). Officially, it is called a Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or 3DEA).

TDEA is also a symmetric-key block cipher algorithm that need the DES cipher algorithm thrice to each data block. Its block size is 64-bits and key sizes are 168, 112, and 56-bits, subsequently for the keys 1, 2, and 3. It also need the DES equivalent rounds i.e. 48. It means 16 rounds for each key.

Updated on: 14-Mar-2022


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