What is Initial Permutation in DES?

Information SecuritySafe & SecurityData Structure

An initial permutation is required only once at the starting of the encryption process. In DES, after the complete plaintext is divided into blocks of 64 bits each, IP is required on each of them. This initial permutation is a phase in the transposition procedure.

The initial permutation appears only once, and it appears before the first round. It recommend how the transposition in IP should proceed, as display in the table.

For example, it can said that the IP restore the first bit of the original plain-text block with the 58th bit of the original plaintext block, and the second bit with the 50th bit of the original plaintext block, etc. This is nothing but jugglery of bit positions of the original plaintext block.

Idea of IP

Bit position in the plain-text blockTo be overwritten with the contents of the bit position

Each permutations creates a 64-bit input and permutes them in accordance with a definite rule. It can have shown that only a few input ports and the corresponding output ports. These permutations are keyless straight permutations that are the opposite of each other.

For instance, in the initial permutation, the 58th bit in the input develop into the first bit in the output. Likewise, in the final permutation, the first bit in the input develop into the 58th bit in the output.

In another terms, if the rounds among these two permutations do not continue, the 58th bit entering the initial permutation is the similar as the 58th bit leaving the final permutation.

The complete transposition table used by IP is display in the table. This table must be read from left to right and top to bottom. For instance, it is famous that 58 in the first position denotes that the contents of the 58th bit in the original plaintext block will overwrite the contents of the 1st bit position, during IP.

Similarly 1 is display at the 40th position in the table which defines that the first bit will overwrite the 40th bit in the original plaintext block. The same rule used for all other bit positions.


After IP is completed, the resulting 64-bit permuted text block is divided into two half blocks. Each half block includes 32 bits. It have known as the left block as LPT and the right block as RPT. Now, 16 rounds are implemented on these two blocks.

Updated on 14-Mar-2022 10:01:05