What is the full form of LCD ?

Introduction: What is LCD?

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a type of flat-panel display that uses liquid crystals to produce images. LCD technology has become ubiquitous and is commonly used in electronic devices such as televisions, computer monitors, mobile phones, and digital watches. The liquid crystals are sandwiched between two glass plates and are manipulated by electric fields to control the amount of light passing through them.

LCDs are thin, lightweight, energy-efficient, and produce less heat compared to other types of displays. They offer high resolution and image quality, although viewing angles can be limited.

General Characteristics

LCD displays are widely used and known for their unique set of general characteristics. Some of the notable characteristics of LCD displays include

  • Thin profile are extremely thin and lightweight.

  • Energy-efficient − consume very little power.

  • High resolution − can offer high resolutions.

  • Limited viewing angle − the image quality deteriorates when viewed from an angle.

  • Limited contrast − resulting in blacks that are not as deep as those seen in other display technologies.

  • Low heat emission − emit very little heat

  • Fast refresh rate − smoother video playback and better gaming experiences.

Overall, the general characteristics of LCD displays make them suitable for a wide range of applications, from small portable devices to large-screen televisions. While they may have some limitations, the benefits they offer in terms of energy efficiency and high-quality image reproduction make them a popular choice for consumers and manufacturers alike.


The history of LCD displays dates back to the early 20th century, when the properties of liquid crystals were first discovered. In 1888, Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer and German physicist Otto Lehmann observed that a derivative of cholesterol exhibited two different melting points, which they attributed to the existence of a liquid crystal phase. Later, in the 1960s, researchers at RCA demonstrated the first practical liquid crystal display.

The first LCDs were monochrome, low-resolution displays that were primarily used in digital watches and calculators. It wasn't until the 1980s that the technology advanced enough to produce high-resolution color displays, which led to the widespread use of LCDs in computer monitors, televisions, and mobile phones. Over the years, LCD technology has continued to evolve, resulting in displays that are thinner, lighter, and more energy-efficient.


Illumination is an important aspect of LCD displays, as they require a light source to illuminate the liquid crystal material and produce an image. There are two main types of illumination used in LCD displays: backlighting and front lighting.

Backlighting is the most common type of illumination used in LCD displays. It involves placing a light source, typically a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) or light-emitting diode (LED), behind the liquid crystal material.

Front lighting, on the other hand, involves placing the light source in front of the liquid crystal material. This technique is primarily used in low-power applications, such as electronic book readers and digital watches.

Connection to other Circuits

The connection of LCD displays to other circuits is an essential aspect of their operation. To display an image, an LCD panel must be connected to a control circuit that provides the necessary electrical signals to drive the liquid crystal material.

In simple monochrome displays, the control circuit may consist of only a few components, such as a microcontroller and a driver chip. More complex displays, such as those found in color televisions and computer monitors, require more sophisticated control circuitry that includes specialized signal processing chips and integrated circuits.

Active and Passive Matrix

LCD displays are typically categorized into two types of technologies: passive matrix and active matrix.

Passive Matrix Technology

Passive matrix technology is the older and simpler of the two technologies. It works by using a matrix of electrodes to control the voltage applied to the liquid crystal material at each pixel.

Active Matrix Technology

Active matrix technology, on the other hand, uses thin-film transistors (TFTs) to control the voltage at each pixel. Each pixel has its own transistor, which allows for more precise and efficient control.

Advantages and Disadvantages

The advantages of LCD displays include high resolution, low power consumption, and wide viewing angles. Additionally, LCD displays are thinner, lighter, and more durable than traditional cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. However, they have some disadvantages, including a limited color gamut, a narrow contrast ratio, and a higher cost compared to some other display technologies. Overall, LCD displays have become an essential component of modern electronics, from televisions and computer monitors to smartphones and digital watches.


In conclusion, LCD technology has revolutionized the way we display images in electronic devices. LCDs are thin, lightweight, and energy-efficient, making them an ideal choice for many applications. The use of backlighting and active matrix technologies has allowed for even better display quality and faster refresh rates. As technology continues to advance, we can expect further improvements and innovations in LCD technology, leading to even more impressive displays in the future.


Q1. What is the difference between LCD and LED displays?

Ans. LED displays are a type of LCD display that use Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to provide backlighting. The main difference between the two is that LCD displays use fluorescent tubes for backlighting, while LED displays use LEDs. LED displays are more energy-efficient and offer better contrast and brightness.

Q2. Can LCD displays cause eye strain?

Ans. LCD displays emit very little radiation and are generally considered to be safer for the eyes compared to CRT displays. However, prolonged use of LCD displays can still cause eye strain, particularly if the display is not adjusted correctly or if the ambient lighting is not adequate.

Q3. Can LCD displays be repaired if they are damaged?

Ans. In most cases, LCD displays cannot be repaired if they are damaged. The cost of repairing a damaged display can be high, and it is often more cost-effective to replace the entire display.

Updated on: 14-Apr-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started