What is the full form of BSO (surgery) ?

What is Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO)?

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is a surgical procedure in which both ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed from a woman's reproductive system. The procedure can be performed for various medical reasons, such as reducing the risk of ovarian or breast cancer, treating endometriosis, or addressing certain gynecological conditions like ovarian torsion or pelvic inflammatory disease.

During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or performs a laparoscopic surgery with small instruments and a camera. The ovaries and fallopian tubes are then identified, clamped, and removed. After the surgery, a woman will enter menopause immediately if she has not already done so, as the ovaries are the primary source of estrogen and progesterone in the body.

BSO can have significant implications for a woman's health, including changes in hormonal balance and sexual function, increased risk of osteoporosis, and decreased risk of certain cancers. Consequently, before making a choice, it is crucial to examine the potential risks and benefits of the treatment with a healthcare professional.

Reasons for Undergoing BSO Procedure

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) may be recommended by a healthcare provider for several reasons, including −

  • Ovarian or breast cancer − Women with a high risk of ovarian or breast cancer due to genetic mutations, family history, or previous cancer diagnosis may choose to undergo BSO as a preventative measure.

  • Endometriosis − In cases where endometriosis causes severe pain or bleeding and other treatments have been unsuccessful, BSO may be recommended to remove the ovaries and reduce the production of estrogen.

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) − BSO may be performed to treat severe cases of PID that have caused damage to the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

  • Ovarian torsion − BSO may be necessary to treat ovarian torsion, a condition in which the ovary twists and causes severe pain and potential damage to the ovary.

  • Other gynecologic conditions − BSO may be recommended for the treatment of certain gynecologic conditions, such as ovarian cysts or benign tumors.

Risks and Side Effects of BSO Surgery

Some of the risks and side effects of BSO surgery may include −

  • Menopause − Removal of the ovaries can cause immediate menopause, with symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.

  • Hormonal imbalances − Without the ovaries, the body may experience hormonal imbalances, leading to changes in sexual function, bone health, and cardiovascular health.

  • Surgical complications − As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding organs.

  • Risk of future health problems − BSO may increase the risk of certain health problems such as heart disease, osteoporosis, and cognitive decline.

  • Psychological effects − For some women, the removal of the ovaries may cause emotional distress and a sense of loss of femininity or sexuality.

Recovery and Aftercare following BSO Surgery

Recovery and aftercare following Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) surgery can vary depending on the individual and the specific procedure performed. However, some general guidelines for recovery and aftercare include −

  • Hospital stay − BSO may be performed as an outpatient procedure, but some women may need to stay in the hospital for one or more days.

  • Pain management − Pain medication may be prescribed to manage any discomfort following the surgery.

  • Activity restrictions − Physical activity and heavy lifting should be avoided for several weeks following BSO surgery to allow the body time to heal.

  • Follow-up appointments − Follow-up appointments will be scheduled to monitor the healing process and address any concerns or complications that may arise

  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) − Women who undergo BSO will likely need hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to manage menopausal symptoms and prevent bone loss.

  • Emotional support − BSO surgery can have emotional implications, and women may benefit from emotional support from family, friends, or a counselor.

It is essential to follow all post-operative instructions provided by the healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms or complications promptly. By following these guidelines, women can help ensure a smooth recovery following BSO surgery.


Ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed through a surgical operation called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). The technique may be advised for a number of medical conditions, such as endometriosis treatment, ovarian or breast cancer prevention, or specific gynaecological conditions. However, BSO surgery carries some risks and potential side effects, such as immediate menopause, hormonal imbalances, surgical complications, and increased risk of certain health problems. Recovery and aftercare following BSO surgery may involve pain management, activity restrictions, follow-up appointments, hormone replacement therapy, and emotional support. Women considering BSO surgery should discuss the potential risks and benefits with a healthcare provider to determine if it is the right option for their specific medical situation.


Q1. Is BSO surgery the only option for reducing the risk of ovarian or breast cancer?

Ans. No, there are other options for reducing the risk of ovarian or breast cancer, such as increased surveillance, prophylactic mastectomy or oophorectomy, and medications like tamoxifen or raloxifene. A healthcare provider can help determine the best option based on an individual's medical history and risk factors.

Q2. Can hormone replacement therapy (HRT) be used to manage menopausal symptoms after BSO surgery?

Ans. Yes, HRT can be used to manage menopausal symptoms and prevent bone loss after BSO surgery. However, it is essential to discuss the potential risks and benefits of HRT with a healthcare provider, as it may increase the risk of certain health problems.

Q3. Will BSO surgery affect my ability to have children?

Ans. Yes, BSO surgery will remove both ovaries and fallopian tubes, which can result in infertility. It is important to discuss fertility options with a healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure if fertility preservation is desired.

Updated on: 16-May-2023


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