Wireless Local Loop (WLL) is a generic word for an access system that connects users to the local telephone company's switch via wireless links rather than traditional copper cables. This system, also known as fixed wireless access (FWA) or fixed radio, provides telephone, facsimile, and data services to business and residential subscribers using analog or digital radio technology.
WLL systems enable the rapid deployment of basic phone service in areas where geography or telecommunications development makes traditional wireline service prohibitively expensive.
WLL systems are easy to integrate with a modified public telephone network (PSTN), and they can usually be installed within a month of acquiring equipment, much faster than traditional wiring, which can take months to set up and years to increase the capacity to meet the growing demand for communication services.
Analog systems for medium- to low-density and rural applications are among WLL's offerings.
There are WLL systems based on Code Division Multiple Access for high-density, high-growth urban and suburban settings (CDMA). Telecommunications systems such as TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and GSM (Global System for Mobile) are also available.
Digital WLL systems can offer higher-speed fax and data services in addition to providing better speech quality than analog systems.
Existing operations support systems (OSS) and transmission and distribution systems are also compatible with WLL technology.
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), and code division multiple access (CDMA) are all used to accomplish WLL (CDMA).
CDMA is the one that is utilized in India. This is a full-fledged mobile phone system. In fact, in nations like the United States and Korea, it is the most widely used technology for mobile phone services.
WLL systems are scalable, allowing operators to continue to use their existing infrastructure as the system grows. WLL customers use a radio unit connected to the PSTN via a local base station to obtain phone service.
A transceiver, power source, and antenna make up the radio unit. It runs on AC or DC power, can be mounted indoors or out, and usually comes with a battery backup for when the power goes out. The radio unit connects to the premise's cabling on the customer side, allowing customers to utilize their current phones, modems, fax machines, and answering machines.
Following are some of the benefits of using WLL −
It eliminates the need to build a network connection for the first or final mile.
Since no copper cables are used, the cost is low.
Wireless communication is much more secure because of digital encryption technology.
It is very scalable since it does not require the installation of more wires to scale.